Posts Tagged ‘assistive technology’

Living Visually Impaired in Prescott Arizona — The 2016 Story

July 24, 2016

Living Visually Impaired in Prescott Arizona — The 2016 Story


If your vision is beyond correction by traditional medical and optical procedures, if you are anticipating this situation, or you are assisting someone like this, you need resources and training known as “Vision rehabilitation”.


Good news! Technology and well known practices offer affordable techniques to reduce many vision limitations to inconveniences if you’re willing to tackle the learning curve. Bad news! Prescott is limited in its access to rehabilitation personnel, awareness of possibilities, and diffusion of people who can help each other.


Below are resources collected by a Prescott resident who maintains vision loss coping skills after reaching legal blindness a decade ago. There’s plenty of room to improve the community resources. Please consider action, suggestions and collaboration for everybody losing vision in these days of abundant technology and information sharing.

What is Vision Rehabilitation


Useful techniques range from marking appliance settings by sticky dots through using a smart phone to read books, identify money denominations, and participate in social media. “Active Daily Living” refers to these sticky dot tricks and myriad organizational tasks formerly taken for granted. Serious safety concerns are addressed by “Orientation and Mobility Training” for climbing stairs, walking with the miraculous long white cane, and crossing streets. Gaining or maintaining computer communicationskills requires adapting to magnification or audio interaction or gesturing on a touch screen smart phone.


Sensitive interpersonal skills come into play when a conversation partner must be identified by voice or when sighted assistance must be requested. All these are conquered by learning and practice, leaving only the misery of transportation until the day of civilized public transit or safe, affordable driverless cars.

Where does one start recovering from vision loss?


When the page text becomes wiggly or haze surrounds you or objects jump into your path, eye doctors may help for a while, but there’s no miracle cure for effects of aging, sunlight, and genetics. Struggling to drive, read, walk, recognize faces, or see computer screens tell you it’s time to find vision rehabilitation. Medical interventions (except for cataract removal) rarely restore vision. Don’t deny, bargain, get angry, or become dependent when it’s time to learn new ways of doing things.


A great starting place is Macular Degeneration Support (mdsupport.org). You’ll find ongoing discussions about treatments, vitamins, iPads, good lamps, photography, travel, smart phones, and just about everything a Macular Degenerate lives with. We share secrets, such as the frequency of visual hallucinations called Charles Bonnet Syndrome. Guide books and tips abound. The community is international and multi-generational.


Another great resource is the “Eyes on Success” weekly podcast interviews with vision loss survivors, eyesight professionals, technologists, hobbyists, sportsters, and employed workers. A friendly pair of retired scientists in Rochester NY, one blind and one sighted, have compiled a library of easy listening MP3 files and show notes.

Where do I go for local help?


Locally, here are resources beyond the vision medical professionals who do not customarily offer vision rehabilitation as described above. Veterans have great residential training in Tucson. Students grow through school disability services and special education programs. People seeking jobs have state Department of Economic Services special programs and assistance to work. Otherwise retired people must generally develop and implement their own rehabilitation programs.



  1. The ‘People Who Care’ nonprofit offers “Confident Living” introductions to topics in Vision Rehabilitation and Causes of Vision Loss. Limited transportation and other elder support services are also available. Six-week seminars are presented when funding is available.
  2. Georgeanne Hanna is a contact with and certified rehabilitation contractor for state services that also assist retired individuals. Her phone is 928-775-5857. Watch for Public Service Announcements. Orientation and mobility trainers can be imported at state expense upon request.
  3. The Disability Empowerment Center (formerly New Horizons Independent Living center) provides independent living services for people with various disabilities, and a transportation system based in Prescott Valley. Call and ask whether vision rehabilitation services are currently available.
  4. Yavapai Library Network sites have assistive computers for people who know how to use magnification and audio assistance. Contacts are available for the National Library service “talking books” program.
  5. YC OLLI (Osher Lifelong Learning Institute) offers occasional workshops on vision and hearing loss adaptation.
  6. Prescott Fine Arts Theater honors requests for front row seating for visually impaired people and companions.
  7. Lions clubs underwrite medical and optical services for low income persons and occasional publicized events. Clarification of their services would be appreciated in the comments of this website, especially to identify matches with needs expressed here.
  8. Warning!!! Former organizations now defunct include: Northern Arizona Vision and Hearing Loss, “old blind center”, Yavapai Association for Blind and Visually Impaired (YABVI), “new blind center”. Check out carefully Daily Courier articles for dates referring to services gone from the troubled trail of Prescott vision supporters.

In summary, People Who Care Confident Living Seminars and state DES rehabilitation coordinators are the primary currently active resources. A mobile person losing vision should also consider relocating to gain a full multi-month training program from a facility such as Southern Arizona Association for Visually Impaired.

What help is available from government?


  • AZ Department of Economic Services supports a local vision rehabilitation professional (see above), special services for vocational training, and limited assistive technology. An online directory is available.
  • In 2014 Prescott established Disability and Accessibility coordination mandated by the 1990 American Disabilities Act (A.D.A). Call the city information line or http://www.prescott-az.gov/accessibility/. The federal ADA.gov website expands on citizen rights, organization responsibilities, and procedures for grievance.


    Many cities have a Disability Services Coordination council based in the Mayor’s office, alas not Prescott, but maybe in Prescott Valley. Audio alerts for street crossing are available only on Willow Creed Road near Embry-Riddle but not downtown. Sidewalk barriers, icy patches, overhanging branches, and unsafe construction should be reported to City Streets and Code Enforcement (they do respond). Visitors to downtown Prescott should not expect comfortable, safe walking conditions.

  • with A.D.A. enforcement, airlines, banks, and hospitals have trained personnel for providing equitable services. PHX airport provides walking guides through TSA to your gate (tell before checking in). Notable within Prescott are bank “talking tellers” for automated cash withdrawal (e.g. Chase Bank). Checkout devices at stores are now equipped for accessibility and privacy, e.g. typing in a PIN, but may not be enabled or known to checkout personnel.
  • social Security offers documents and transmittals in electronic formats on CD.

What do blindness support organizations offer?


The following groups are knowledgeable about all aspects of vision loss and advocate for improvements that benefit people with disabilities. Organizations that accept charity contributions are not necessarily well informed about Active Daily Living, Orientation and Mobility, assistive technology, the A.D.A, or the interface between medical and social service systems (but they should be). “Helping the visually impaired” requires education, awareness of needs, and accountability.


  • The American Council for the Blind (ACB) and National Federation of the Blind (NFB) advocate and educate on blindness issues that benefit people with all kinds of vision loss. State affiliates hold annual conferences and support local chapters (but not currently in Prescott).
  • The American Federation for the Blind (AFB) has special websites for seniors and is affiliated with the Vision Aware service. A monthly newsletter evaluates technology
  • MDSupport.org specializes in macular degeneration with myriad free downloadable guides and an ongoing support mailing list.
  • Books and newspapers are available from Bookshare.org, with a library of over 400,000 fiction/nonfiction, adult/adolescent volumes readable on the website or downloadable to book readers. The NFB NewsLine offers national newspapers and magazines in various formats and reading services, available also through BookShare. National Library (NLS) provides narrated books played on free) devices.

How about technology?


  • PC and Mac computers have built-in magnification and voice support. For Mac, VoiceOver is a click away while for PC a free NVDA package is easily installed. Various $1000 commercial products offer versatile magnification and audio with support and training. These “screen readers” enable a synthetic voice to speak web pages, documents, and buttons or typing. The technology is great, but the learning curve is steep and trainers are scarce.
  • Elegant hand-held devices can read books from NLS or Bookshare, notably Victor Reader Stream and BookSense. Amazon Kindle and Nook devices are not usable without sighted assistance.
  • The smart phone has put mainstream devices into the hands of people without full vision but with sufficient hearing. The iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch have Voice Over built in to read buttons as fingers glide across the screen as well as text in mail and web pages. Book reader apps from Bookshare, Apple, NLS, Amazon enable downloading and listening to books, magazines, and documents.

  • Smart phone apps provide walking navigation, location awareness, remote identification of photographed objects, reading money, and other assistance. Many games and apps are fully accessible. Speech recognition increasingly replaces keyboarding. Apple devices (iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch) are fully accessible by voice (use Triple Click Home to start). Android devices lag Apple in both capabilities and training, varying across models and manufacturers. Verizon and Apple store personnel can assist in turning on these devices but only practice will determine whether they meet vision needs.


  • The blindness communities maintain a “Internet radio network” of interviews, demonstrations, and advice on all topics related to vision loss and especially technology. Accessibleworld.org, EyesOnSuccess.net, and Hadley.edu have highly informative weekly updates. These are MP3 files for subscription and downloading as podcasts via iTunes or podcatcher apps.
  • Hand-held readers also serve as recorders for presentations, memos, and bookmarks. Some also provide radios with audible controls.
  • Apps can remotely recognize and label record contents of files and food cans. Color identifiers, GPS systems, and talking thermostats exist to overcome daily eye sight annoyances. The coming Internet of Things offers in-home devices that recognize speech, read out device information, and operate remotely. Be sure you understand the surveillance capabilities of such devices as well as how failures can lock you out or inadvertently activate other devices.

  • Twitter social media is a river of news about technology and blindness under the keyword #accessibility and people like slger123 and all major vision-related organizations and federal agencies.

See the “Talking Assistive Technology” page on this website for links to products.

Where can I get more information on vision rehabilitation in the Prescott region?


This web page is your current best bet for information. Its author is a legally blind technologist. She survived the sparse services available in Prescott by seeking resources for self-rehabilitation. She has attended national and state assistive technology exhibitions and visited vision rehabilitation centers in Tucson and San Diego. She’s a user of assistive technologies and a constant tracker of external services. Ask her anything about vision rehabilitation and she’ll find an answer.


Please add comments with additional services, corrections, or opinions. Anyone interested in taking over this web page and keeping it up to date is welcome to the information compiled so far.


Isn’t it time Prescott had full service vision rehabilitation for retired people with vision loss? Following the MDSupport motto “No one should leave an eye doctor’s office thinking their situation is hopeless”, vision loss is a journey of learning and adaptation and challenges that build on established rehabilitation practices and abundant technologies. Why can’t Central Yavapai have a branch of such a facility? Advocacy needed!!!

Send corrections and additions to slger123@gmail.com or leave a message 928.445.6960.


Links to Resources

Other Posts in “As Your World Changes”

This blog started as a way to reclaim writing skills. These earlier posts convey the spirit of a changing world as vision degrades and skills increase.

Warnings About Web Misinformation


  • Web searches in Google, DuckDuckGo, Bing often link to misleading or outdated web pages. Sometimes links go to local white/yellow page directories driven by advertising.

  • The following organizations are defunct: Northern Arizona Vision and Hearing Loss Center; Yavapai Blind Center; YABVI Blind Center;; and related terms. There is no blind center on Washington Street, vacated in 2007. The phone number 928-778-0055 is disconnected. If you receive a brochure or read an article about this location, facility, or phone number, please correct the mis-informant. YABVI (Yavapai Association for Blind and Visually Impaired) appears to be a restructuring of a previous organization, now managed funds by a group of eye doctors.

  • No attempt is made here to assure accessibility of web sites beyond ascertaining content using Firefox with the NVDA screen reader. Some resources use PDF documents difficult to use with a screen reader.

  • Resources here focus on “vision rehabilitation” rather than medical treatments typically billed to Medicare or insurance. Vision Rehabilitation includes: Orientation and Mobility Training, walking with a long white cane and safely crossing streets; Active Daily Living, tricks and techniques for optimizing remaining vision in everyday life; reading newspapers and books; and using technology by magnification or voice interaction.

National Level Organizations

Vision Information and Support

Federal Government

Under the Americans with Disabilities act we can claim equal access to most resources. However, “civil rights are not self-enforcing”. The following websites address issues of equality and offer many paths to further public information.

  1. Disability.gov, connecting the disability community with information and opportunities drill down by state and topic, e.g. to Arizona and Transportation.
  2. White House Disabilities Coordination including monthly conference calls
  3. Federal Elections Help Americans Vote Act implemented by Yavapai County, supporting private and independent voting on site
  4. FCC 21st Century Communication Act covers cell phones,audio and video descriptions, and PLAN, the Personalized network for public safety alerts
  5. ADA.gov, the law, policies, enforcement’s.Dept of Justice and YRMC settlement on training citizen complaint invokes A.D.A. to change procedures and train staff

State Level Organizations

Government

  1. Directory of services from Department of Economic Security

  2. AZ Governor Council on Blind and Visually Impaired

  3. SunSounds Reading Services
  4. Assistive Tech Training Center (Cottonwood)
  5. National Library Service Talking Book Arizona contact

Resource Centers

  1. SAAVI (Southern Arizona Association for Visually Impaired (Tucson), website describes full service vision rehabilitation
    Arizona Center for Visually Impaired (Phoenix)
  2. (PDF) ViewFinders Low Vision Resource Directory (PDF)

  3. VRATE, Vision Reabilitation and Asstive Technology Expo is held annually in Phoenix, free, excellent coverage of state-wide capabilities

  4. Arizona Assistive Technology Exchange

Chapters of national organizations

  1. AZ Council for Blind azcb.org
  2. NFB (National Federation for the Blind) Arizona Resources

Yavapai County and Prescott Area

Government

  1. State Department of Economic Security Rehabilitation sustains local vision rehabilitation and coordinates orientation and mobility training.
  2. Prescott Public Library may have screen readers on notebooks and vision aware Computer
    Mentors. Also provides membership with National Library Service.

  3. City of Prescott Accessibility and disability coordination (A.D.A) Meeting the A.AD.A law!!!

Nonprofit and other services

  1. Georgeanne Hanna Certified Vision Therapist and Certified Low Vision Therapist, georgeannehanna@gmail.com, phone 928.775.5857. Contact directly to arrange state rehabilitation services.

  2. Disability Empowerment (formerly New Horizons Independent Living) Center (Prescott Valley)
  3. “People Who Care Confident Living Seminar (

Technology Assistance


  1. Verizon can turn on iPhone VoiceOver, Triple-click-home
  2. Best Buy sells Apple products with good accessibility (iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad) and Android tablets with unpredictable accessibility
  3. Chase (and maybe other) banks have “talking ATM” machines that read menus into earphones to dispense cash and perform other services.
  4. Yavapai College Osher Lifelong Learning Institute offers a track of technology courses.

  5. Prescott MAC and PC clubs have held programs on assistive technology


Revised July 25 2016, slger123@gmail.com
“As Your world Changes” article on “Living Visually Impaired in Prescott AZ” — 2016 http://AsYourWorldChanges.Wordpress.com

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Sandwich Board Signs Are Dangerous!

January 15, 2016

The Costs of Sandwich Board Advertising Signs


  1. Are wooden sandwich board signs dangerous? Are they safe when placed according to city code?
  2. Who pays if there’s an accident between a pedestrian and a sign? How much liability insurance is required of sign owners? How much liability insurance is apportioned to pedestrian accidents within the city budget?
  3. What is the cost/benefit to merchants? citizens? tourists?
    What is the risk/benefit to merchants? citizens? tourists?


Submit your answers below:

Accident report: Sandwich Board Sign Injures Pedestrians on Downtown Prescott Street, October 14 2016

Deceased was walking along Whiskey Way on a nominal weather day using her mobility cane. A careless runner pushed through a crowd of children leaving their school. Several people bumped into each other, with a few falling down.


Deceased attempted to step aside while untangling her cane from a sandwich board advertising sign. Such open wooden frame barriers are positioned approximately every 10 feet. Other pedestrians were also injured as signs broke apart or flattened on the sidewalk. A cascade of signs and bodies caused many additional falls.


Deceased struck her head on a sharp sign edge and a second time as she fell onto the street, unconscious.


Since the signs that caused injuries were legal under the city’s ordinance, no citations were issued. Liability remains to be determined. Lawsuits are expected against the city, merchants, and sign distributors. The careless runner has not been located, probably ducking into a local bar after the chaos, perhaps not even realizing its cause.


Let’s prevent this accident from happening! Any pedestrian is vulnerable to unsafe signage, anywhere. And, about those saw horses and barriers that warn of unsafe pavement, they’re dangerous, too! Tell Prescott City Council to ban advertising sidewalk signs and fix sidewalks that need fixing.


Prescott Needs a Community Inclusive Disability Council

January 1, 2012

Scooter and Sticky Analyze Their Community Disability Life Situations

Scooter and Sticky are enjoying their occasional Gimp girl luncheons at Ted’s Pizza on the Square. Taking turns interviewing each other about their respective disabilities, services, adjustments, and continuing constructive life style changes orchestrates their rambling. They both admire the statement from the White House lawn celebrating 20th anniversary of the A.D.A. that “Civil rights are not self-enforcing”. However, practical daily life strategies for different disabilities vary greatly and consume so much energy. Their discussions challenge them back on their respective tracks toward goals within shifting social systems neither fully understands. It’s scooter’s turn to quiz Sticky to organize her recent experience

  1. Scooter:
    Hey, how’s your perennial search for services comparable to SAAVI in Tucson or Lighthouses around the country?

    Sticky:
    Growl. As far as I can tell, New Horizons is still the main game in town, actually way out there in PV. Yet another vision specializing occupational therapist closed up her practice, and I’ll miss her. New Horizons and some other “vendors” held a Low Vision Expo at the Adult Center where I met some new Vision Losers, but I’m not appraised of the exhibit’s after effects. I met a home schooling mom of two children with disabilities in the PPL elevator who confirmed my experience. It’s hard to get services except by piggybacking on vocational rehab or school special ed if you are retired.

    I just keep wondering how many other folks like me are out there looking for services, not even sure what they really need. Who in Prescott would have stats on my, or your disabilities, like how many diagnosed and how many being served? And how do people get referred around the state, medical, charity, nonprofit, etc. like groups? Somebody must know, but our intuitions raise the right questions.

  2. Scooter:
    Don’t the eye doctors handle that? You mean, they don’t address like how your life changes and where to get help?

    Sticky:
    Not often in my experience. One referred me to Second Sight rehab but that operation is long gone. Usually they send you off to the Phoenix based Low Vision practices which offer high priced reading equipment as well as magnifier thingys. But nobody on the medical side seems to have a charge code for dealing with life changing effects of their diagnoses.

    My best source for about 15 years has been MDSupport.org, run by retired music teacher Dan Roberts. His motto is that “no patient should leave after a diagnosis feeling it’s hopeless”. That website and mailing list is a Wikipedia of vision-related information and the mailing list for Macular Degenerates regularly connects cool people and their diverse experiences. But the docs ignore anything not optical or retinal and live over in another silo. This predicament is national, really international, so MdSupport helps patients prepare questions to prod information out of the medical people.

    There’s also locally People Who Care seminar on Confident Living that introduces vendors if you happen to hear of it by word of mouth or Daily Courier notices. This is good introductory information but progressive vision loss means continued learning new skills for the rest of our lifetimes. I’m proof of how much a motivated person can learn on her own, but, let me tell you, it’s really hard work for my family as well as myself.

  3. Scooter:
    So, exactly what kinds of services are you talking about?

    Sticky:
    First, and foremost, is OMT, Orientation and Mobility Training. Like how to use my precious $35 white cane, clamber up stairs, find buildings, and, horrors, cross streets. I had to wait a year after getting put on the list for state paid OMT specialist Kim in Sedona but she retired or quit. Finally, I broke down at the People Who Care seminar I went to and got lined up for lessons with a Special Ed OMT person during the summer. Those few lessons gave me independence and staved off isolation, with Yavapai College as my main OMT practice area and now playground for courses at OLLI. Ironic that the cost of that OMT would be far less than any single trip to the ER! but OMT isn’t generally available.

    Other stuff Lighthouse and SAAVI do are called ADL, Active Daily Living, like cooking, labeling clothes, signing checks, and other things you never thought about needing to learn. Braille literacy and computing technology, too, of course. My favorite Prescott helper,, probably unknown to anybody else, is the Talking ATM at Chase Bank – plug in ear buds, listen to menus, punch the keypad, and walk off with your cash. Beautiful!

  4. Scooter:
    A lot of that sounds like regular training to upgrade your skills. How do you keep up? What are all those gadgets you carry around?

    Sticky:
    For years I’ve listened to podcasts which I automatically download to hear recorded demonstrations, interviews, group discussions, even book clubs, all organized by Blind people. Like Main Menu from the American Council for the Blind, AccessibleWorld.org community rooms, and Blind Cool Tech. It took some mind warping, but I crossed a cultural boundary when I discovered how much the Blind could teach me living partially sighted.

    A friend took me to exhibits spread across several hotels at LAX showing all the assistive tech products I’d heard about on podcasts. Even Stevie Wonder showed up at one booth I was scouting. So, I bought a lot of listening devices and shifted all my reading, TV watching, and writing to using these audio feedback hand-held gadgets. Here, this black phone looking box, called a BookSense, has over 1000 books I’ve collected from Bookshare, a volunteer and publisher supported distribution system. For $50 annual BookShare fees, I also get NYTimes best sellers and NewsLine NYTimes, Washington Post, New Yorker, and more. Reading just keeps getting better and rarely causes me much hassle.

    Now, this past year, I’ve picked up the iPhone, really a little computer with an ecosystem of apps that merge specialized assistive tech into the mainstream. Like, my iPhone tells me currency, sends away pictures I cannot identify for near instant interpretation, plays my podcasts, scrolls my Twitter TimeLine, and also reads books and news. A little voice tracks my fingers moving on the screen and gives me complete control of the device.

    My computer setup is a simple Windows netbook, costing about $300, with a free screen reader to feedback my keyboarding and speak out text on the screen. I think I spent about $1500 in 2011, not as much as most years, for upgrades, new tech, and services. Students and employees get more expensive stuff through tax paid funds, boosting prices in the so-called disability-industrial complex, so people like me are paying out of our retirement funds. Ouch, but worth it!

  5. Scooter:
    So, you must be a great community resource! Do you give courses in this tech wizardry?

    Sticky:
    sure I do offer but most people losing vision have trouble making this tech transition. Our brains have to shift from seeing to hearing and most people want to hang on using vision as long as possible. Magnifying from their computers works, but is very slow. I’ve helped a trainer from New Horizons learn the computer screen reader I use, called NVDA. But there isn’t a critical mass of local users like me to convince new Vision Losers to try mysterious gadgets and overcome what I’ve dubbed Synthetic Voice Shock.

    Honestly, it’s lots of hard work to learn all this, took me many months on each gadget to get comfortable. We need more teachers and understanding of how this tech works. My best experiences have been a 2 hour session on “Using Things That talk” at OLLI. And I have a nicely organized collection of the podcasts I’ve learned from that I can distribute on DVD or 4GB flash drive.

  6. Scooter:
    If I understand you correctly, most of what you Vision Losers need is out there, but not integrated into any location in Prescott, let alone understood by the medical profession. What is the crux of this problem?

    Sticky:
    It’s like the whole system is broken, locally. Nationally there may be a serious lack of trained vision rehab specialists,made worse by geographical distribution. It takes enough consumers, i.e. Vision Losers like me, to support these services, but there also must be a healthy referral chain from eye doctors and sharing of personnel among retirees, employment seekers, and students. It’s a mess! And nobody has the stats out in the public of this city to help understand how big a mess!

    Now, remember, this isn’t charity we need. Occasional potlucks or outings might be nice, but personally I want to maintain and grow my relationships among people with broad interests, like AAUW and YC OLLI, and maybe even an OCCUPY or political sideline. Plus family and remote friends.

    Of course, lack of public transportation is a major barrier, but asking for that invites a smack down. “Costs too much! Gotta keep every street re paved and broadened and make people think this is a great place to retire”. That brings up another topic, about how much money is really sitting around in nonprofits or federal funds or raised annually that could generally improve services? Who knows? Who cares?

    One cool idea I’ve heard about elsewhere is an “Aging in Place Concierge” service. I actually used something like this in Tucson, called Red Rose, two women operators who would do whatever you needed for flat rates, like $35/hr. Pet sitting, rides, mail sorting, light repair, whatever plus knowing the existence and quality of services for outsourcing. I’d love to find that in Prescott!

  7. Scooter:
    I heard about some new communications practices that seemed important, like preventing loss of life as in Katrina. Did you participate in an emergency preparedness test last year?

    Sticky:
    No, was there one? I think it’s the national Broadband.gov effort in the FCC that is rolling out those tests. Like not relying only on radio and those scrolling lines on TV screens I cannot read will be replaced by a system sending notices in forms I could use, including ring tones, vibrations, and text messages on my iPhone. But communities have to take responsibility for linking up with the funding and implementation of that national provision. Who in Prescott does that? Where do I sign up?

    Out of curiosity last year, I joined in listening to the White House Disability monthly conference call. Lots of info, like transportation regulation changes, oh, wait, not to worry there. But medical, independent housing, broadband, education, across the board good stuff is happening. But not locally unless someone is on their toes to learn and spread the word. Who would that be?

  8. Scooter:
    Just wondering, do you ever hear the A.D.A. mentioned in your circles within Prescott?

    Sticky:

    Oh, the YRMC got a little play in the Daily Courier and a big notice in DisabilityScoop and Disability.gov last year. Actually, it sounds like they did the right thing, training their personnel, after a deaf complaint denying ASL. I wonder if that training is available at other city sites.

    It would also be interesting to know how many A.D.A. complaints and grievances have been filed and how they were resolved. Like the VA, colleges, and city parks and streets are covered. YC campus is pretty habitable, at least for this long cane walker. However, I don’t understand how anybody on scooter or wheelchair or care-giver arm can negotiate those advertising placards in front of every store downtown. Often I get stuck among them, the benches, and plants or run smack into oncoming pedestrian or bike traffic as I decide which way to go around those damned barriers. Another common problem is construction on sidewalks, like how am I to know how to get around a ditch or find another route? And, ice on sidewalks and bridges gives me weeks of Cabin Fever, missing my 1.5 mile daily walk on those blessed smooth streets. But who do you contact about these problems
    , trying to avoid a formal complaint? Do you know?

    Hey, Scooter, do you know the term TAB, as in Temporarily Able Bodied? Not like other civil rights, disability is a category anybody can join any time. And everybody will join if they live long enough. Plus, disability doesn’t happen just to individuals but also to that person’s family, friends, and colleagues. Yes, disability should be a universal concern.

  9. Scooter:
    sounds like there are Lucky Vision Losers who won the lottery being located near services. And then there are Unlucky Vision Losers stuck in a frayed web of confusing groups with no central organization looking after them?
    What do other cities and regions do?

    Sticky:
    A quick web search turns up many “Mayor Disability Council” where city offices, disability service vendors, charities, and, most important, disabled people themselves. You can even listen in on recordings of the San Francisco Disability Council, with transit, independent living, A.D.A. complaints, and more on the agenda with feedback and suggestions from “consumers”, i.e. people with disabilities, many far worse than you and I experience.

  10. Scooter:
    Eureka! Let’s get together with more representatives of other disabilities and form some kind of Community Council that really addresses these problems we’ve been talking about.

    Sticky:
    Great idea! Read on fora draft to get us started. Educate! Advocate! Liberate!

Prescott Arizona Really Needs a Disability Council


  1. Collect and publicize data on services available, services provided, and services needed
  2. Publicize and implement federal and state guidelines and mechanisms, such as emergency preparedness
  3. Coalesce and channel charity, nonprofit, federal/state/city funds toward services as articulated by citizens with disabilities
  4. Match citizens with disabilities to boards, advisory groups, city committees, etc.
  5. Publicize and accept A.D.A. complaints and grievances and promulgate resolutions
  6. Support peer communication among people with different as well as same disabilities and common needs
  7. Provide public training on organizing events, managing facilities, and communicating with persons with disabilities

What do other cities do with their disability services and citizens with disabilities?

Chatanooga Mission Statement

The Mayor’s Council on Disability’s overall mission is to promote policies, programs, practices, and procedures that give equal opportunity for all individuals with disabilities, regardless of the nature or severity of the disability; and to empower individuals with disabilities to achieve economic self-sufficiency, independent living, and inclusion and integration into all aspects of society.

Will Computer Science Meet accessibility in 2011?

January 18, 2011


I’m a legally blind retired computer scientist. As I gained proficiency with assistive technology for reading, writing, and communicating, I faced similar costs, barriers, grievances, and coping challenges as thousands of other computer adept late career people. However, I also take a keen interest in effectiveness and usability of my access tools and the media they work upon as a total system for processing information in our marvelously plastic brains. And, as former educator, researcher, and manager, I look upon my profession as contributors to both sides of the problem and solution arenas acting under broader social forces from government, demographics, and mainstream technology industries.


May I share my unique experience with you? Here’s my take on the current state of computer science (CompSci) related to Persons with disabilities (PwD)in general and the specific opportunities for visually impaired persons. Assistive technology refers to software like screen readers that use text to speech and keyboard focus interactions with operating systems, applications, and web pages. Accessibility is a matter of degree to which the applications, OS, and web sites support assistive technology. to achieve the same performance and satisfaction as all other users.

responsibilities, accountability, openness, and Opportunities for CompSci


are educational institutions now, in 2011, ready to embrace disability civil rights? Is the academic computing field prepared to integrate advances from the separated assistive technology industry and the generation of students raised with strong but different skill sets? Can CompSci meet its aspirations of providing the 4th R of education for everybody? Will there be movement to re-mediate decades of deficient designs of web information management systems and individual documents? where does CompSci and information technology fit into this solution, or problem, space?

basic accountability as an academic discipline


Like all educational fields that use web resources to assist education, the CompSci and IT fields are clearly responsible for adhering to standards that mitigate barriers for people with disabilities using available assistive technology. Especially where costs of access technology and special skills have been attained through rehabilitation resources or even individual investments, this is immediately a matter of jobs for PwD. Moreover, there are ripple effects for all intermittently or eventually disabled persons or caretakers, or tax payers, and that is everybody several times over.


Have our fields done well so far? No, as shown by flaws revealed traversing the 2010 Computer Science Education week and partner websites (see data below). These are rife with stumbling blocks, and generally exhibiting indifference to established design and usability practices. Barriers are unnecessarily erected, and unfortunate messages of ignorance and indifference indicate a field not so much up with trends in user oriented communication. or even acknowledging sensory differences in users.

domain responsibility of the CompSci field

CompSci and IT bear the additional responsibility of producing the tools, languages, and patterns; the programmers, designers, and testers; the processes, quality assessments, and design strategies; interfaces, interaction models, and transactions; the books, published articles, and motivations; and so on, that underlay the capabilities for educational institutions to meet their basic accountability.

>
Further CompSci responsibilities are the development of cultures where people with disabilities exhibit their skills and tools to demonstrate how well they can produce software and hardware products and artifacts. Beyond Cultural integration is the need for domain knowledge, e.g. how screen readers and caption systems work and how artifacts must be designed for smooth operation by persons using assistive technology.


CompSci has often promoted pedagogical tools like Alice and scratch that explicitly bar people with certain disabilities getting equal footholds in and excitement about computing. Nevertheless, many people have not only become high functioning but also innovative regarding access technology, including the very products I’m using to write this article. A community of computing oriented professionals have banded together to produce the aforementioned standards, tools, processes, and businesses that await adoption by CompSci and IT.

Computational thinking opportunities await CompSci


In fact, the above strengths and weaknesses of the social motivation for overcoming limits for PwD are truly, really, beautifully illustrative of computational thinking. The widely used WCAG standards are a fledgling “science of accessibility” with tested hypotheses, guidelines,, terminology, and a blogging trail of intellectual progress. Good web pages are all about semantics: markup, logical structure, sound relationships (in a database sense), and progressive enhancement design to transform semantics with syntactic elements like color and graphics. The essence of accessibility is support for multiple representations where access tech supplements or replaces sensory limits. Abstraction, semantics, representations, implementations, relationships, … are the sound principles for achieving the technical aspects of basic accountability and additional responsibilities of computing fields.


Hey, take the challenge! What should CompSci and IT do?

  1. clean up our websites, a good goal for Cs education week 2011. Read the standards, use guidelines and tools to re-mediate and assess quality, then do the work. With remediation of technical zits will come a better understanding of the computational thinking issues that should lead to improved designs.
  2. Take responsibility for explaining disabilities and accessibility to educational colleagues. Incorporate local disability service professionals and
    enlist the fear and concerns of university management to assure resources.

  3. audit all pedagogical tools and artifacts and label each for sensory and disability limitations. Then progress toward the better products available while applying computational thinking for more universal representations.
  4. Use the competitive, exciting advances of tablets, smart phones, text to speech, and accessible apps to motivate and explain both how accessibility works and why it matters in our economy. Just open up the hood under the accessibility options and check out the high performing speech interfaces.
  5. Learn to talk with persons with disabilities about their
    needs, high functioning skills, innovative tools, and culture.

  6. Do not feel bad about lack of experience or past mistakes. We are all overdue with a dose of karma, such as this writer who cannot use or maintain security education applets I developed five years ago. Ouch!

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Overall, let’s open up a new field of computing, pull publications out of the ACM pay wall, and lead the way through computational thinking.


why not?

Issues, evidence, and epiphanies

are the feds really coming after universities for inaccessibility?


The Obama administration departments of Justice and department of education Office of civil rights have certainly shown signs of action backed up by White House ceremonies and initiatives:


On the positive side, California state University system is often praised for its improvements. Sadly, a funded study of analysis of university web accessibility is hidden in an obscure journal.


If all this comes to fruition right under the noses of congress, regulatory and advocacy will open many doors for computing professionals with a bent toward social entrepreneurship and intriguing technology advances. By the way, the professional accessibility virtual water cooler spreads daily updates on Twitter .

What will happen if universities are forcefully or voluntarily driven into accessibility? We may know by 2012.

why hasn’t accessibility and assistive technology taken hold in computing research and education, ?


As a former educator, I’ll take the all purpose route of blaming the textbooks? One form of blame is the presentation of content as in printed tomes, derived from WORD documents, spruced up by publishers, and embellished with instructor power points all performed without consideration for readability by print disabled students. This forces, I’m not kidding, hundreds of pages to be scanned into electronic forms where most original MS-WORD structure is lost, i.e. hours of labor in an error prone incomplete reverse engineering process.

How dumb is that?well, nationally, this problem is being rectified by bookshare under a department of education contract to adapt, just once in an industrialized manner, many college and K-12 textbooks. However, there isn’t a similar well known cooperative effort specializing in computing texts, or efforts by publishers except for Oreilly Media contributions of its electronic versions directly to bookshare.


Now, consider textbook content itself. Are there any, like more than 0, standard computing texts that contain chapters and exercises on assistive technology and accessibility as recommended in standards and produced by specialized branches of software and publishing industries? Please comment any examples.


the root of all evil in textbooks goes back to curricula accreditation. Omitted there, and frozen into practice, accessibility principles are instead forced into industry workshops, such as Knowbility Access U and Open Web Education Alliance. This further differentiates career paths with web development considered a craft, combining touchy feebly communication, advertising fodder, turnkey content management systems, and a steady flow of freelance or in house jobs open to lesser educated mortals.


The irony is that web accessibility is one of the best exemplars of “computational thinking” that has driven some higher echelons of CompSci leaders. See my 2009 post on many ways accessibility and assistive tech put computational thinking in action for pedagogical practices.

really? is the W3C nurturing a “science of accessibility”?


Read the W3C Web Content Accessibility Guide 2.0 and “Universal Design for Web Applications” by Wendy Chisholm and Matt May for lively explanations and motivation for the WCAG standards.


There’s an amazing amount of thought hammered into shape and utility in these guidelines and scenarios on the w3C web site. Rather than tons of funded research projects to identify hypotheses and perform experiments and build prototypes, the standards bodies combine experiences from developers, authors, consultants, and gadflies who really care about their subject. social and technical consequences. Fights and personalities drive discussions toward articulation and analysis that don’t come out looking like ACM portal abstracts. Nevertheless, pick any recommended practice, e.g. headings and logical structure in web pages, and you’ll find rationale, practical hedges for difficulties, and the basis for better controlled and more academically rigorous investigations.


As for the actual academic research communities, there’s a strange legacy of publication practices that make it difficult to track the field. Conference papers disappear behind the ACM Digital Library Portal pay wall. Institutional and individual members of ACM have access that people like this retired researcher have to fork over $200 to reach. Even paying the ransom isn’t enough, as I found it exceedingly difficult to negotiate the search interface in the 2008 time frame, and without response to requests for assistance. In other words, the publication pay wall is an inhibitor to the spread of insight on accessibility from perfectly serious and hard working researchers. How silly is that?


The notable exception I track is the work of professor Richard Ladner at U. Washington research and outreach and his prolific junior colleague Jeffrey bigham, now at U. Rochester. WebInsight project publications are available as readable PDF’s organized well by topics and authors that offer the bulk of their funded research.. These publishable fundable research results are intelligible, related to the standards versions of their science, and especially interesting for a user of the technology attracted to computational thinking, i.e. me. But then the papers reference too often into the ACM portal black hole. Wouldn’t the field progress more rapidly if more people could read such publicly funded publications and appreciate the experimental models being applied?


One additional topic I tracked was an award winning paper mentioned in Professor bigham’s blog on web research, namely the collaborative accessibility project at IBM Japan. However, the best I could find was a useful Youtube video on “social accessibility”. Indeed, with additional perspectives from the grass roots operational social accessibility projects webvism community tagging and solana for cracking the evil CAPTCHA barriers facing visually impaired web users. Indeed, find screen reader and accessibility videos on Youtube including Easy Youtube since Youtube itself is marginally accessible.


another interesting area is accessible apps for apple and android mobile products. There are important engineering lessons here regarding accessibility integration into the architecture, with apple doing it well, Google trying to paste on its talkback capability, and Microsoft admitting it blew off accessibility in its win 7 phones. Google Android accessibility is dubbed the “Model T Syndrome” for not applying state of the art engineering techniques, expecting visually impaired consumers to wait years for reasonable functionality and usability.


Finally, for the serious minded computer theory connection, visit the IBM researcher and leading accessibility guru Jim Thatcher articles on practical standards in business as applied to Amazon.com, Target.com, and many .gov websites. This wealth of robust reasoning and decades of experience are truly awesome.

What’ is the evidence for bad accessibility practice in the computing field?


Here is a test you can perform yourself.


Start the CSED Week test in Web Aim WAVE analyzer. Yes, click that link and now you’ve been seduced into web page testing! Now, look for the link to Partners, click and see the errors there. Keep going for the partner websites, opening and analyzing each web site. Keep going and you will be amazed at the WAVE complaints as the page structures are revealed in their semantic nakedness.


Lots of errors, right??? Let me explain how the errors affect my reading using an interactive access tech “screen reader”, illustrated in recordings in the 2009 post.

  1. The “missing ALT description” error tells me the web site developers have no clue about accessibility, ignoring the most basic rule. Visually impaired people cannot know what’s in your graphic, why it’s there,if it is decorative or meaningful in context.
  2. At the higher level of page structure are errors in omitted headings, irregular heading levels, and uninformative headings. The basic problem for someone visually impaired is building a reliable map of a page to transform from a linear search by laboriously tabbing from one HTML element to another. The outline tells me quickly what’s on the page, just like the outline of any well written document. Rarely do I find a web page from a CompSci organization with a good outline, often omitting headings entirely. Another indicator is irregular headings, like H4-H1-H3 which usually indicate confusion among semantics of headers and font-style presentation issues better handled by style sheets.
  3. Unlabelled form elements can be a show stopper when leading a person and screen reader through a donation or purchase or registration form. The proper HTML has an explicit corresponded between label and element, call, duh, “Label”. Without labels, the user just hears “edit box” rather than “first name edit box”. Forms are really complex , often associated with transaction timeouts and monumental headaches locating and fixing errors. Again, there are good rules for creating usable forms, which the unlabelled form element error tells me the developer has ignored. Do they want my business?

  4. Standalone link names are important for, like headings, a link abstraction allows rapidly skimming for general context and specific refinements.”Click here”, “here”, “read more”, and “learn more” require the screen reader user to search around for context. See post “I don’t want to click here” for a humorous take on this annoying practice.
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Webaxe guide to introductions to accessibility and its demo podcasts is a good place to start and also entertaining. WebAim Web Accessibility in Mind also offers an annual empirical analysis of screen reader use and many checklists and guidelines. One caveat is that WAVE, although free and easy, is susceptible to flaws of any static analyzer with false hits, cascading errors, and interpretation of results. However, our tests show that it readily exposes often embarrassing mistakes just waiting for correction. My favorite was a major CompSci blog with hidden text offering Viagra remedies.


While many of these complaints relate primarily to technical communication, there are true design problems related to search tasks, as on the ACM Digital Library, and on large multi-organizational websites like universities. Beyond accessibility, as in supporting technology, are issues of bandwidth limitations, small screen mo vile devices, and user choices on browser script security. While not formalized as in “structured programming” or “object-oriented design”, the recommended engineering practice is “progressive enhancement”, starting from a purely semantic page that covers the basic content and separates presentation layers which a browser can strip away to assure the content is preserved in many contexts. It cannot be emphasized too much: the person using a screen reader is working directly with the semantic content provided by the developer. Designer focus on color, fonts, graphics, and interactivity are truly only “in the eyes of the sighted reader” and may add to but should not obscure the essential page content. and use cases. In other words, the analyses provided by tools like WebAim WAVE and even more important, the mental model in the person using a screen reader provide a favor to page designers by pointing out flaws.

And, is there any good news?


Definitely,when cultural divisions are bypassed, are growing assemblage of tools that enable someone losing vision to maintain their computer skills, provided they can access the training and guides to re-build their own environment. Admittedly, regaining capabilities after vision loss requires months of hard work, willingness to learn new approaches, and acceptance of major life changes.

  • AThe free, powerful, open source screen reader NVDA (NonVisual desktop access) competes with established $1000 pricey products on Windows platforms. I truly enjoy, and donate to, the mailing list of international users who daily test and share advice on this Australian generated project. Its developers are blind, primarily using python. These guys deserve a major computing award for their global contributions and professionalism in their twenty-something age ranges.
  • The miracle of Text to Speech that activates the hearing sense into an alternative channel into our brains where reading actually takes place. While older people may take more time to rewire their brains after vision loss,it’s truly remarkable that vision can be so minimalist in computer usage, provided accessibility is engineered into our software and information sources. Now, we’re poised to take on the challenge of “information visualization without vision”, seriously a cognitive and technological adventure in literacy and openness.
  • Bookshare and NFB News Line downloadable a alternative for print disabled services that brings literally 1000s of great books and daily newspapers to our fingertips in wireless seconds. Never did I imagine I could have such a great store of information to support my retirement book club, lifelong learning, and social entrepreneurship activities period. Materials are read by synthetic speech from DAISY, an XML based, international standard for audio and text content.
  • Levelstar Icon Mobile Manager and Docking Station, designed and distributed by a blind engineer, that streamlines my access to Bookshare, NewsLine, Twitter, email, and RSS. Most sighted, and now blind, people will enjoy an immense number of accessible iPad apps, a direction I’ll soon be taking myself.But the Icon sets a high bar of throughput I don’t expect to find on any other device by avoiding screens, using spoken menus and text reading. Another award worthy young technologist for CompSci to learn from.The implementation software for this handheld LINUX box is python and sqlite.
  • The #a11y Twitter community of accessibility gurus, blindness advocates,normal blind working folks, and inspiring authors lifts me up every day with humor and an unbelievable syllabus of linked readings. I never expected to find such a “School of Twitter” in social media that could fill my local personal and professional void. I especially value AccessibleTwitter website and demonstration for its common sense, ease of use, and challenge to the big clunky Twitter, which is, of course, the data source and API.

  • I’m also grateful for professional opportunities to potentially influence the direction of computing through the CMD-IT Center for Minorities and Disabilities in ITan, its Board of Advisers, and energetic organizer. I’ve written two other posts input to an NSF Task Force on CyberLearning, and hopefully await an insightful report.
  • Close to home, I appreciate the opportunity to connect with a few local disability professionals and volunteer groups. I’ve seen first hand how a broken rehab system requires enormous cooperation and energy to bring to ever more baby boomers losing vision the tools and experience I managed to find for myself. For all the $$$ spent on research, the chain of referrals and services beyond the medical plateau leaves so many of us just hanging on precariously while trying to find our ways through the inevitable grieving and depression cycles. It shouldn’t be this way in a
    wealthy world, requiring not charity but rather planned delivery of existing resources, as related in Jane Brody’s NYTimes articles on vision loss.

The 2011 CompSci Meets Accessibility Manifesto


And that latter point is where my disappointment with the handling of assistive technology and accessibility in computing has lead me to put considerable effort into writing up this critique. We just have to do better in accountability within institutions, domain responsibility for our professionals, and awareness of the depth of effectiveness of our computational thinking methods. Thousands of jobs depend directly on our outcomes for accessibility and quality computing products, plus centuries of better quality of life for everyone sooner or later. Let’s make accessibility meet computer science professionally in 2011.


We’re now at a teachable moment for assistive tech and accessibility in computing education. Everybody has the basic functions in their hands, literally, and for free. Windows users can download capable free open source NVDA screen reader and try testing web pages. Android and IOs users turn on their text to speech and learn credible NonVisual manners of using myriad interesting and useful apps. Come on, anybody can learn to work like a low vision person so the days of descending into the exorbitantly expensive blind ghetto for access tech is over. Anybody from now on who produces inaccessible pedagogical products or sloppy web pages is out of excuses. Your artifacts are testable, the testing tools are available, the engineering practices are wedded with the science of accessibility in standards. and people with sensory limitations like my hazy vision have those access tools at their fingertips, skilled and raring to use products made for mainstream but accessible if properly designed. So, failure to step up to this challenge and do the right thing, which really isn’t so hard and actually is good for business, is a choice of accountability, responsibility, and opportunity.

Beyond Universal Design – Through Multi-Sensory Representations

January 8, 2011

<The following recommendation was offered at the CyberLearning workshop addressed in the previous post on CyberLearning and Lifelong Learning and Accessibility. The post requires background in both accessibility and national funding policies and strategies.


This is NOT an official statement but rather a proposal for discussion. Please comment on the merits.

Motivation: CyberLearning must be Inclusive

To participate fully in CyberLearning, persons with disabilities must be able to apply their basic learning skills using assistive technology in the context of software, hardware, data, documentation,, and web resources. Trends toward increased use of visualizations both present difficulties and open new arenas for innovative applications of computational thinking.

Often, the software, hardware, and artifacts have not been engineered for these users, unforeseen uses, and integration with a changing world of assistive tools. Major losses result: persons with disabilities are excluded or must struggle; cyberlearning experiments do not include data from this population; and insights from the cognitive styles of diverse learners cannot contribute to the growth of understanding of cyberlearning.

Universal Design Goals

Universal design embodies a set of principles and engineering techniques for producing computational tools and real world environments for persons usually far different from the original designers. A broader design space is explored with different trade-offs using results from Science of Design (a previous CISE initiative). Computational thinking emphasizes abstraction to manage representations that lead to the core challenges for users with disabilities and different learning styles. For example, a person with vision loss may use an audio channel of information received by text to speech as opposed to a graphical interface for visual presentation of the same underlying information. The right underlying semantic representation will separate the basic information from its sensory-dependent representations, enabling a wider suite of tools and adaptations for different learners. This approach transcends universal design by tapping back into the learning styles and methods employed effectively by persons with many kinds of disabilities, which may then lead to improved representations for learners with various forms of computational and data literacy…

Beyond Universal Design as Research

beyond Universal Design” suggests that striving for universal design opens many research opportunities for understanding intermediate representations, abstraction mechanisms, and how people use these differently. This approach to CyberLearning interbreeds threads of NSF research: Science of design and computational thinking from CISE +human interaction (IRIS)+many programs of research on learning and assessment. +…

Essential Metadata Requirements

A practical first step is a system of meta-data that clearly indicates suitability of research software and associated artifacts for experimental and outreach uses. For example, a pedagogical software package designed to engage K-12 students in programming through informal learning might not be usable by people who cannot drag and drop objects on a screen. Annotations in this case may serve as warnings that could avoid exclusion of such students from group activities by offering other choices or advising advance preparation. Of course, the limitations may be superficial and easily addressed in some cases by better education of cyberlearning tool developers regarding standards and accessibility engineering.

Annotations also delimit the results of experiments using the pedagogical software, e.g. better describing the population of learners.

In the context of social fairness and practical legal remedies as laid out by the Department of Justice regarding the Amazon Kindle and other emerging technology, universities can take appropriate steps in their technology adoption planning and implementation.

Policies and Procedures to Ensure Suitable Software

For NSF, appropriate meta-data labeling then leads to planning and eventual changes in ways it manages its extensive base of software. Proposals may be asked to include meta-data for all software used in or produced by research. Operationally, this will require pro posers to become familiar with the standards and methods for engineering software for users employing adaptive tools. While in the short run, this remedial action may seem limiting, in the long run the advanced knowledge will produce better designed and more usable software. At the very least, unfortunate uses of unsuitable software may be avoided in outreach activities and experiments.
Clearly, NSF must devise a policy for managing unsuitable software, preferably within a 3 year time frame from inception of a meta-data labeling scheme.

Opportunities for Multi-Sensory Representation Research

Rather than viewing Suitable Software as a penalty system, NSF should find many new research programs and solicitation elements. For example, visual and on visual (e.g. using text-to–speech) or mouse version speech input representations can be compared for learning effectiveness. Since many persons with disabilities are high functioning in STEM, better understanding of how they operate may well lead to innovation representations.

Additionally, many representations taken for granted by scientists and engineers may not be as usable by a wider citizenry with varying degrees of technical literacy. For example, a pie chart instantly understandable by a sighted person may not hold much meaning for people who do not understand proportional representations and completely useless for a person without sight, yet be rendered informative by tactile manipulation or a chart explainer module.

Toward a Better, Inclusive Workforce

Workforce implications are multi-fold. First, a population of STEM tool developers better attuned to needs of persons with disabilities can improve cyberlearning for as much as 10% of the general population. Job creation and retention should improve for many of the estimated 70% unemployed and under-employed persons with disabilities, offering both better qualities of life and reduced lifetime costs of social security and other sustenance. There already exists an active corps of technologically adept persons with disabilities with strong domain knowledge and cultural understanding regarding communities of disabilities. The “curb cuts” principle also suggests that A.D.A. adaptations for persons with disabilities offer many unforeseen, but tacitly appreciated, benefits for a much wider population and at reasonable cost. NSF can reach out to take advantage of active developers with disabilities to educate its own as well as the STEM education and development worlds.

Summary of recommendation

  1. NSF adopt a meta-data scheme that labels cyberlearning research products as suitable or different abilities, with emphasis on the current state of assistive technology and adaptive methods employed by persons with disabilities.

  2. NSF engage its communities in learning necessary science and engineering for learning by persons with disabilities, e.g. using web standards and perhaps New cyberlearning tools developed for this purpose.

  3. NSF develop a policy for managing suitability of software, hardware, and associated artifacts in accordance with civil rights directives to universities and general principles of fairness.

  4. NSF establish programs to encourage innovation in addressing problems of unsuitable software and opportunities to create multiple representations using insights derived from limitations as of software as well as studies of high performing learners with disabilities.

  5. NSF work with disability representing organizations to identify explicit job opportunities and scholarships for developers specializing in cyberlearning tools and education of the cyberlearning education and development workforce.

Note: this group may possibly be
Related
National Center on Technology Innovation

CyberLearning and Learning Cyber: Lifelong and Accessibility Experiences

September 19, 2010

Susan L. Gerhart slger123@gmail.com


Alex Finnarn Alex.Finnarn@yc.edu

White paper for NSF CyberLearning Task force


Background: Alex is completing one year service with AmeriCorps Vista as a educational technology specialist for OLLI, the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at Yavapai College, also working with Northern Arizona SCORE (Service Corps of Retired Executives) in Prescott Arizona. Susan is a semi-retired computer scientist, translating her experiences with vision loss into education and advocacy for web accessibility and adoption of assistive technology. She is a student of philosophy, history, and economics in OLLI, working with Alex and others on a technology task force, and facilitator of courses on social media and technology and society.


    To make cyber learning effective in the 21st century, it needs to be available for all populations and people who possess a desire to learn.
Current technology has not lived up to this promise. The younger generations of learners have embraced technology adequately with the help of adventurous teachers and innate ability; however, the older generations of learners have met cyber learning with adversity. Oftentimes, the systems they desire to use are not streamlined enough for adequate adoption. Finally, learners with classic accessibility issues, like poor vision, are ignored when online learning tools are designed. By reaching out to these disadvantaged populations, the whole of cyber learning will improve.

Experience with Cyber Learning for Lifelong Learners

OLLI is nationally supported by the Osher Foundation operating at over 100 U.S. independent locations. Yavapai College OLLI has over 600 members selecting peer directed courses from over 50 subjects during each six week session for fees of $130 for five class sessions per year. Courses are often structured around 1/2 hour lectures from The Learning Company supplemented by facilitator moderated discussions and materials. Diverse fare includes computer training (keyboard, Windows, Mac, Internet, Office, Photoshop) as well as rock and roll, art, health, memoir writing current events,, etc.


We asked: Where does CyberLearning assist OLLI activities and courses? What benefits might accrue
from a good technology platform?


We began to place course materials online after conducting a user survey in the spring of 2010. 87% of respondents in the survey reported having Internet access at home, and 79% reported checking their email at least once a day. The majority of the membership for OLLI did indeed have access to and used the Internet; however, none of the classes were able to readily incorporate cyber learning into their curriculum. A few classes tried using an online learning system, but interest peaked early and soon faded into disuse. With an able-bodied, intelligent, and Internet-ready membership, why was this OLLI unable to engage in cyber learning?


From strongly worded survey comments, we derived a “social contract” that members would not be forced into technology but rather be offered optional technology enhancements. Without clear cut cost benefits, such as reduced printing, or measurable improved learning objectives, we focused on outreach to home bound members, interaction with similar institutions for broader curricula opportunities, repositories and sharing within courses, and archiving institutional pictures and stories.


Existing platforms generally failed to attract interest and use from facilitators despite tutorials and assistance. The first problem is privacy, quite appropriate for repeated warnings of phishing and identity theft, but a barrier to sharing when members do not want a public web identity (Facebook aside). Streamlined and flexible entry is essential especially when courses occur in rapid cycles of six weeks. Forums for sharing are sparsely used because members are involved in many personal and community activities. They spend time as desired, but not required, on outside reading, Googling, and reflecting. A crucial feature of OLLI classes is the lack of tests or assessments during the course. Once grading and competition are removed from the classroom, many online platforms become bloated with unnecessary features. Furthermore, the incentive of using an online classroom to take a quiz or study for a test disappears, and a student must rely on innate curiosity to visit an online classroom.


While email and search engine savvy, OLLI members are not cognitively familiar with the models of forums, blogs, wikis, or tweet streams, and because of this, we are faced with introducing both new models and complex platforms together. After some experimentation and testing, we settled on using EDU 2.0, a rapidly growing U.K. based company with a reasonable business model and support, for an online classroom. We also partnered with another interesting venture in an Australian-based U3A, University of the 3rd Age, which offers self-paced courses and repositories available for facilitator adaptation at similar lifelong learning institutions. Although the OLLI membership is predominantly White, well-traveled, and professionally diverse, international thinking and contacts can offer many new opportunities for our OLLI, like an international book club.

Meanwhile, OLLI’s monthly newsletter has been adapted to appear on a WordPress blog with future plans for moderated forums. We are also actively using the college’s interactive TV classroom connection to offer distributed courses to our sister OLLI, expanding their course selection in the process. A long term goal we have is to host joint OLLI Internet-based courses that would take advantage of the country’s pool of retired expertise. However, the really tragic goal of reaching homebound elders in a community lacking public transit remains primarily a function of offering shared rides and a reliance on volunteers working within the public library.

Perhaps a more important goal is “Learning Cyber” or learning “by osmosis” and how social networks and cyber learning are changing our information practices. Why would any sane person use Twitter? How does a grandparent respond to pressure to participate in Facebook in order to see pictures, or monitor children, grandchildren, and vice versa? Does Google always provide correct information? What happens when newspapers open articles to potentially unpleasant community commenting? What is RSS? How does one critically check facts and correct chain emails with political misinformation? Facing complex interactions with Social Security websites, how does one upgrade their skills for PDF, forms, and chat help? Who wrote Wikipedia? When can You Tube, BigThink, and TED supplement the History and Discovery cable television channels? What are our real privacy rights regarding Google, Facebook, and online retailers? Institutions like OLLI provide an informal setting for increasing and assessing the skills of individual Cyber Learners. Our technology initiatives may be more effectively directed at exposure and bridging generations in both technological and chronological senses.

Recommendations

For the continuing improvement of a national Cyber Learning movement, we suggest researchers and developers incorporate, sooner rather than later, constituents from learning environments such as OLLI and similar institutions. We also recommend investigating the educational and technological practices of the two international sources we found most attractive, EDU 2.0 and U3A. The above experience should provide insights into and questions about cross generational Cyber Learning, which will benefit the movement as a whole.

Links


  1. The Bernard Osher Foundation Lifelong Learning Institutes


  2. OLLI Yavapai College, Prescott Arizona


  3. The Learning Company DVD Lectures


  4. “University of the Third Age” international movement


  5. U3A Australia, courses at Griffiths University


  6. EDU 2.0 Free U.K. based Learning Site

How Attention to Accessibility Can Improve Cyber learning

Attention to accessibility for persons with disabilities should be an immediate objective for educating *ALL* constituencies who touch any aspect of Cyber learning. Consider “accessibility” as the practices and technology that enable persons with disabilities using “assistive technologies” to participate fully and comfortably in CyberLearning.


Indeed, there is no choice if the Departments of Justice and Educations follow through on their “Dear College President” letter regarding
fairness in applications of emerging technologies in academic environments. “Accessibility” here means that devices and web sites must support assistive technologies commonly available through special education channels and increasingly appearing in mainstream markets: Screen (text-to-speech) readers, alternative input/output devices, networked tablet readers such as Kindle and iPad, and possibly lab instrumentation and pedagogical software.


As we argued regarding senior learners, citizens and markets must be served by people who differ in many aspects of physical and mental activities. Education workplaces and curricula must adapt to concepts of universal design ancultural diversity.
Fortuitously, adapting to accessibility offers a systematic way of expanding and analyzing design tradeoffs that benefit far more than persons with disabilities. Think about curb cuts originally for wheelchairs and now beneficial to baby strollers, bikers, inattentive walkers, and luggage cart users. In web environments, standards: address usability for persons using screen readers, also causing difficulties for many mobile device user;, facilitate interoperability of browsers and other user agents; and help manage costs of do-overs and long term maintenance.

Recommendations


For CyberLearning to reach its potential and broaden participation, attention to accessibility is not only overdue and inevitable but also a chance to refresh underlying technology as a CyberLearning experience in itself.


1. Web standards such as WCAG 2, provide a fledgling “science of accessibility” in the form of definitions, principles, experimental results, and field trials. Standards and theories evolve by employing high quality peer reviews, broad community input, extensive documentation,continuing debate in blogs and on Twitter, and increasing adoption earlier in cycles of HTML adoption. Professor Richard Ladner’s group at U. Washington contributes in depth traditional graduate and capstone education experiences, experiments, and publications, yielding cohorts of researchers also involved in outreach to K-12 students with disabilities. Furthermore, an engineering paradigm is emerging as “progressive enhancement” supported by static analyzers, and free operational tools (NVDA screen reader and VoiceOver on Macs). This science is a rich area for computational thinking.

2 University and professional organization web sites are often exquisitely poor examples of attention to accessibility, attested to by a recent NSF-funded study, ironically locked behind a professional society pay wall. Why are many Cyber learning organization web sites so bad? Accessibility simply is not a requirement, e.g. look up your own organizational accessibility statement. Is there one, is it followed, who is responsible? Ok, so academics don’t have time to learn or enforce accessibility theory or practice. But, is it acceptable to turn away Students who can otherwise function well in society but face extra barriers in STEM? and where will accessibility aware CyberLearning developers come from? Ouch, should organizations such as NSF and MIT promote inaccessible pedagogical tools such as Scratch?


In fact, we are not talking major engineering feats, but rather well structured pages as in good technical communication, a few lines of code that make forms into relational structures and pictures into captioned objects. The principle is general use of POSH (Plain Old Semantic HTML) from straight text HTML preserved through styles and fancy interactions topped off by seconds of automated compliance analysis and minutes of insightful execution of use cases. However, accessibility in pedagogical software definitely requires fundamental adoption of hooks and interfaces provided by system vendors.


Think of this change as one small step in technical communication and one giant leap forward in understanding and improving human learning performance.


3. Practically speaking, curricula can only have accessibility grafted onto courses and tools rather than taught as separate subjects. But creative and active learning can come into play: interviewing local ADA specialists for requirements and projects; turning off displays and browsing with a screen reader; estimating costs of retrofitting for omitted accessibility requirements; analyzing risks of lost markets and litigation; adding features suggested by audio supplement or alternative output and input channels; ethics and accessibility addenda to assignments. People who love game controllers and touch screen mobile devices should dig these exercises.


4. Specific interventions must be attempted starting with faculty awareness and introduction to the science of accessibility and its economic importance as well as social fairness. Suggested activities: accessibility seminars at educator gatherings; forced overhaul of professional and government sites to match .com and other .gov levels; design contests for students to makeover and create new information resource sites to meet the grand universal design challenge; audit of pedagogical tools, including textbooks, for universal learning objectives encompassing accessibility; release of all disability related publications now imprisoned beyond professional society pay walls; increased awareness of accessibility as a job and professional speciality; recognition of assistive tech as part of user interfaces; rubrics for POSH in technical communications. …


On a personal note, many avid learners gain vision rehabilitation facilitated through a vibrant online culture of blogs and podcasts on emotional, social, education, and technical topics. Visit this world yourself: book clubs and interactive demos at AccessibleWorld; product demos by individual users at BlindCoolTech; more demos and discussions at ACBRadio; and now a community of #accessibility and #a11y gurus and users on Twitter. Off the mainstream, but taking full advantage of CyberLearning while casting a wider net to newly disabled individuals offers a testimony to spontaneous online learning.

The Data Literacy Challenge


Finally, while the above complaints and suggestions are largely remedial, one clear challenge is the equal visualization” of information and data. Portfolio pie charts, rainfall tables, stimulus recovery expenditure maps, timelines, … are all essential for citizen participation and difficult for visually impaired people. Difficult, yes, but can alternative and multiple ways of channeling data into brains be accomplished through the adapted and flexible recognition and reasoning processes developed by visually impaired thinkers such as scientists and engineers? Can these new models of information and modes of interaction then benefit people with less analytical background or resistance to data driven reasoning?Designing cyber learning for the temporarily fully enabled may not only limit those currently working with disabilities but fail to build upon the unique experiences of and qualities of disabilities which we all have intermittently and eventually.

Links


  1. Department of Justice A.D.A. letter to college presidents


  2. W3C web standards and accessibility guidelines

  3. “>
    U. Washington assistive technology and accessibility projects (Richard Ladner)

  4. “>
    Book “Universal Design for Web Applications” by Matt May and Wendy Chisholm


  5. White paper on”Grafting Accessibility onto Computer science Education”, “As Your World Changes” blog, Susan L. Gerhart


  6. Inaccessible article on inaccessibility of academic web sites

  7. newly founded Institute on Cultural Diversity, including persons with disabilities

Vision What do Vision Losers want to know about technology?

April 5, 2010


Hey, I’ve been off on a tangent from writing about adjusting to vision loss rather on a rant about and praise for website accessibility. Also absorbing my blogging efforts was a 2nd run of Sharing and Learning on the Social Web, a lifelong learning course. My main personal tutors remain the wise people of #a11y on Twitter and their endless supply of illuminating blog posts and opinions. You can track my fluctuating interests and activities on Twitter @slger123.

To get back in action on this blog, I thought the WordPress stat search terms might translate into a sort of FAQ or update on what I’ve learned recently. Below are subtopics suggested by my interpretations of the terms people used to reach this blog. Often inaccurately, some people searching for tidbits on movies or books called ‘twilight’ might be surprised to read a review of the memories of an elder gent battling macular degeneration in the 1980s. Too bad, but there are also people searching for personal experience losing vision and on technology for overcoming limitations of vision loss. These folks are my target audience who might benefit from my ramblings and research. By the way, comments or guest posts would be very welcome..


This post focuses on technology while the next post addresses more personal and social issues.

Technology Theme: synthetic speech, screen readers software, eBooks, talking ATM

Terms used to reach this blog

  • stuff for blind people
  • writing for screen readers
  • artificial digital voice mp3
  • non-visual reading strategies
  • book readers for people with legal blind
  • technology for people with a print-disability
  • apps for reading text
  • what are the best synthetic voices
  • maryanne wolf brain’s plasticity
  • reading on smart phones
  • disabled people using technology
  • synthetic voice of booksense
  • technology for legally blind students
  • audio reading devices
  • reading text application
  • synthetic speech in mobile device
  • the use of technology and loss of eyesight
  • installer of message turn into narrator

NVDA screen reader and its voices

    Specific terms on NVDA reaching this blog:

  • NVDA accessibility review
  • voices for nvda
  • nvda windows screen reader+festival tts 1
  • videos of non visual desktop access
  • lag in screen reader speaking keys
  • nvda education accessibility

Terminology: screen reader software provides audio feedback by synthetic voice to users operating primarily on a keyboard, announcing events, listing menus, and reading globs of text.


How is NVDA progressing as a tool for Vision Losers?
Very well with increased acceptance. NVDA (non Visual Desktop Access) is a free screen reader developing under an international project of innovative and energetic participants with support from Mozilla and Yahoo!. I use NVDA for all my web browsing and Windows work, although I probably spend more hours with nonPC devices like the Levelstar Icon for Twitter, email, news, RSS as well as bookSense and Bookport for reading and podcast listening. NVDA continues to be easy to install, responsive, gradually gaining capabilities like Flash and PDF, but occasionally choking from memory hog applications and heavy duty file transfers. Rarely do I think I’m failing from NVDA limitations but I must continually upgrade my skills and complaint about website accessibility (oops, there I go again). Go to:

The voice issue for NVDA is its default startup with a free open source synthesizer called eSpeak. The very flexible youngsters living with TTS (text-to-speech) their whole lives are fine with this responsive voice which can be carried anywhere on a memory stick and adapted for many languages. However, oldsters often suffer from Synthetic voice shock” and run away from the offensive voices. Now devices like Amazon Kindle and the iPod/iTouch gadgets use a Nuance-branded voice quality between eSpeak and even more natural voices from Neo Speech, ATT, and other vendors. Frankly, this senior citizen prefers older robotic style voices for book reading especially when managed by excellent firmware like Bookport Classic from APH. Here’s the deal: (1) give eSpeak a chance then (2) investigate better voices available at Voice and TextAloud Store at Nextup.com. Look carefully at licensing as some voices work only with specific applications. The main thing to remember is that your brain can adapt to listening via TTS with some practice and then you’ll have a world of books, web pages, newspapers, etc. plus this marvelous screen reader.

Apple Mania effects on Vision Losers

Translation:What are the pro and con arguments for switching to Apple computers and handheld devices for their built in TTS?
Good question. Screenless Switcher is a movement of visually impaired people off PCs to Macs because the latest Mac OS offers VoiceOver text-to-speech built in. Moreover, the same capabilities are available on the iPhone, iTouch, and iPad, with different specific voices. Frankly, I don’t have experience to feel comfortable with VoiceOver nor knowledge of how many apps actually use the built-in capabilities. I’m just starting to use an iTouch (iPod Touch) solely for experimentation and evaluation. So far, I haven’t got the hang of it, drawing my training from podcasts demonstrating iPhone and iTouch. Although I consider myself skilled at using TTS and synthetic speech, I have trouble accurately understanding the voice on the iTouch, necessary to comfortably blend with gesturing around a tiny screen and, gulp, onscreen keyboard. There’s a chicken-and-egg problem here as I need enough apps and content to make the iTouch compelling to gain usage fluency but need more fluency and comfort to get the apps that might hook me. In other words, I’m suffering from mild synthetic voice shock compounded by gesture shyness and iTunes overload.


My biggest reservation is the iTunes strong hold on content and apps because iTunes is a royal mess and not entirely accessible on Windows, not to mention wanting to sell things I can get for free. Instead of iTunes, I get my podcasts in the Levelstar Icon RSS client and move them freely to other devices like the Booksense. Like many others with long Internet experrience, such as RSS creator and web tech critic Dave Winer, I am uncomfortable at Apple’s controlling content and applications and our very own materials, limiting users to consumers and not fostering their own creativity. Could I produce this blog on an iPad? I don’t know. Also, Apple’s very innovative approach to design doesn’t result in much help to the web as a whole where everybody is considered competitors rather than collaborators for Apple’s market share. Great company and products, but not compelling to me. The Google OS Android marketplace is more open and will rescue many apps also developed for Apple products but doesn’t seem to be yet accessible at a basic level or in available apps. Maybe 2010 is the year to just listen and learn while these devices and software and markets develop while I continue to live comfortably on my Windows PC, Icon Mobile Manager and docking station, and book readers. Oh, yeah, I’m also interested in Gnome accessibility, but that’s a future story.

The glorious talking ATM

Terms used to reach this blog

  • talking ATM instructions
  • security features for blind in ATM


What could be more liberating than to walk up to a bank ATM and transact your business even if you cannot see the screen? Well, this is happening many locations and is an example for the next stage of independence: store checkout systems. Here’s my experience. Someone from the bank or experienced user needs to show you where and how to insert your card and ear buds plug. After that the ATM should provide instructions on voice adjustment and menu operations. You won’t be popular if you practice first time at a busy location or time of day, but after that you should be as fast as anybody fumbling around from inside a car or just walking by. Two pieces of advice: (1) pay particular attention to CANCEL so you can get away gracefully at any moment and (2) always remove ear buds before striding off with your cash. I’ve had a few problems: an out of paper or mis-feed doesn’t deliver a requested receipt, the insert card protocol changed from inline and hold to insert and remove, an unwanted offer of a credit card delayed transaction completion, and it’s hard to tell when a station is completely offline. I’ve also dropped the card, sent my cane rolling under a car, and been recorded in profanity and gestures by the surveillance camera. My biggest security concern, given the usual afternoon traffic in the ATM parking lot, is the failure to eject or catch a receipt, which I no longer request. But overall, conquering the ATM is a great step for any Vision Loser. It would also work for MP3 addicts who cannot see the screen on a sunny day.

Using WordPress</h4

Terms:

    >

  • Wordpress blogging platform accessibility >

  • wordpress widget for visual impaired

Translation: (1) Does WordPress have a widget for blog readers with vision impairments, e.g. to increase contrast or text size? (2) Does WordPress editing have adjustments for bloggers with vision impairment?


(2) Yes, ‘screen settings’ provides alternative modes of interaction, e.g. drag and drop uses a combo to indicate position in a selected navigation bar. In general, although each blog post has many panels of editing, e.g. for tags, title, text, visibility, etc. these are arranged in groups often collapsed until clicked for editing, if needed. Parts of the page are labeled with headings (yay, H2, H3,…) that enable a blog writer with a screen reader to navigate rapidly around the page. Overall, good job, WordPress!


However, (1) blog reader accessibility is a bit more problematic. My twitter community often asks for the most accessible theme but doesn’t seem to converge on an answer. Using myself as tester, I find WordPress blogs easy to navigate by headings and links using the NVDA screen reader. But I’m not reading by eyesight so cannot tell how well my own blog looks to either sighted people or ones adjusting fonts and contrasts. Any feedback would be appreciated, but so far no complaints. Frankly, I think blogs as posts separated by headings are ideal for screen reading and better than scrolling if articles are long, like mine. Sighted people don’t grok the semantics of H2 for posts, h3, etc. for subsections, etc. My pet peeve is themes that place long navigation sidebars *before* the contnent rather than to the right. When using a screen reader I need to bypass these and the situation is even worse when the page downloads as a post to my RSS clinet. So, recommendation on WordPress theme: 2 column with content preceding navigation, except for header title and About.

Books. iBooks, eBooks, Kindle, Google Book Search, DAISY, etc.

Terms

  • kindle+accessibility
  • how to snapshot page in google book
  • is kindle suitable for the visually impaired?
  • how to unlock books “from kindle” 1
  • is a kindle good for partially blind peo 1
  • access ability of the kindle

I’ll return to this broad term of readers and reading in a later post. Meantime, here’s an Nytimes Op article on life cycle and ecosystem costs of print and electronic books. My concern is that getting a book into one’s sensory system, whether by vision or audio, is only the first step in reading any material. I’m working on a checklist for choices and evaluation of qualities of reading. More later.

Searching deeper into Google using the Controversy Discovery Engine

You know how the first several results from a Google search are often institutions promoting products or summaries from top ranked websites? These are often helpful but even more useful, substantive, and controversial aspects may be pushed far down in the search list pages. There’s a way to bring these more analytic pages to the surface by easily extending the search terms with words that rarely appear in promotional articles, terms that revolve around controversy and evidence. Controversy Discovery engine assists this expanded searching. Just type in the term as you would to Google and choose from one or both lists of synonym clusters to add to the term. The magic here is nothing more than asking for more detailed and analytic language in the search results. You are free to download this page to your own desktop to avoid any additional tracking of search results through its host site and to have it available any time or if you want to modify its lexicon of synonyms.
Some examples:

  1. “print disability” + dispute
  2. “legally blind” + evidence Search
  3. “NVDA screen reader” + research Search
  4. “white cane” + opinion Search
  5. “Amazon Kindle” accessibility + controversy Search

    Feedback would be much appreciated if you find this deeper search useful.

    Adjustment themes: canes, orientation and mobility, accessibility advocacy, social media, voting, resilience, memories, …

    Coming in next post!

Reading, Ranting, and Computing: 2009 Heroes and Meanies

December 31, 2009

This post sums up 2009 from the perspective of a Vision Loser immersed in assistive technology, avidly learning about accessibility techniques and trade-offs. Sighted readers should glean more about how screen and book reading tools are advancing allowing print disabled people more freedom and enjoyment, at ever lower costs. Partially sighted people can learn how I am finding and using this technology. I call out some heroes and name some stupendous products. But no amount of technology can overcome the “meanies” of slighted social services and educational bases.


First let me thank comment ors and communicators about this blog, which wanders from emotional to technical to political to memoirs. I am always touched by search terms in the blog stats that indicate others are wondering: “what is ‘legally blind’ or ‘print disabled’? how to read Google book search images? why is the white cane significant?” Medical specialists don’t explain these, the disability community has its own vocabulary and modes, and often Vision Losers cannot find another person to query. I hope this blog reflects one person’s transition in useful terminology with practical advice. Please share your experiences here or ask direct questions.

Accessibility Heroes of 2009


My heroes are people who make a difference positively in my Vision Loser life space, often using their resources very wisely then communicating freely and with passion.

The Twitter #Accessibility Constellation

Suppose you are immersed in a subject that strongly influences your daily life
and has morphed into a social cause, say public gardening, or water
conservation, or web accessibility. Imagine you could walk into a conference ballroom and overhear conversations among the subject’s professional experts: reading recommendations, standards progress, emerging contentious issues, new technologies, and professional rumors. Add a dose of spirited interchange, sprinkled across 24 hours a day, with the blessed limitation of 2 lines per utterance. Allow yourself to interject a question or opinion occasionally to test your growing knowledge and appreciate any response from your virtual mentors. For me, this has been the Twitter #accessibility experience of 2009: virtually joining a constellation of accessibility stars and superstars.


so, let me thank the Opera web evangelists, STC accessibility sig, CSUN organizers,IBM accessibility, Mozilla developers, independent web consultants, and standards group members, who line up my browser tabs with hours of worthwhile reading. Most of these communicators use blogs for irregular longer explanations like iheni ‘making the Web Worldwide’ post on ‘Adventures of silver surfers’.

Special Mentions of Useful Work


Especially I appreciate:


wow, I sure learned a lot in 2009, 140 character message at a time, adds up rapidly. Little did I know starting to appreciate Twitter in early 2009how it would influence my web life..

The Great book Reader Game, Fueled by Bookshare

Hold on to your ear buds, this is a great era of reading technology advances, also known as “Digital Talking Books”, represented in DAISY format. When I got my print disability certification and joined bookshare.org in 2006, I started using book reading software on a clunky Toshiba laptop. With no real advisors, I stumbled onto the best reader of the time bookport from APH, the American Printing House for the blind. At first, I was daunted by the array of keys arranged into
combinations that implemented amazing reading functions. Motivated by then tiring regime of audio CD library transactions and cranky players, I rapidly grew to appreciate Precious Paul on the bookport reading my bookshare DAISY downloads.


But then came the Levelstar Icon Mobile Manager in 2007 that could connect wirelessly and bypass PC to bookshare, with an entirely natural Newsstand for retrieving national papers through the NFB news line. Since I preferred the more robust device and flexible reading by bookport, I simply transferred DAISY books from Icon to Pc to bookport every few weeks.


Comes 2009 and the CSUN exhibit hall and I found the Plextalk Pocket. Definitely more streamlined with a great recorder, now I also transferred my DAISY books to its SD card. But I never really felt comfortable with the PPT menus, voice, and reading routine.


Within a few months came the booksense from GW Micro with the best available neo speech voices in a candy bar size with more comfortable navigation. All right, now I get motivated to organize my hundreds of DAISY books into categories and I have references and fiction with me anywhere. Also my latest podcasts transferred from Icon and a bunch of TXT and HTML files. By the way, I had a fantastic simple shopping experience for Booksense at I can See My PC.com.


Oh, there’s more to come. recently reported is another incarnation of the
bookport based on Plextalk Pocket
and a promised something from Kurzweil. speaking business for a moment, bookport was sadly discontinued due to manufacturer limitations. however, companies in Korea and Japan are supplying the designs and components for American company specification and distribution. the worldwide market is somewhat like the cell phone industry where circuitry and casing, fingertip embossing, and, most important, commodity synthetic voices will bypass
traditional desktop and laptop computers. We’re riding a great wave of technology to enable us to exploit services like bookshare and its impressive educational movement.


Where is the Kindle in all this? Well, as I wrote in Amazon-ASU, Kindle, what a mess”, they blew off the disability market by not making their menus and device operations then accessible, then tried to launch into the college textbook sphere, a sore point for ADA requirements to transform print into print-disabled readable formats. Add in publisher and author concerns, and a perfect storm ensued. OK, I buy through a less cluttered alternative amazon interface but, dammit, those “get your Kindle now” come-ons are disgusting.


As to the bookshare library fueling my reading rampages, I appreciate publisher contributions but especially volunteer scanned and validated books. While I find it hard to segregate teenage reading for the bookshare special ed commission, I continually grow my library from changing personal interests and
new acquisitions. Recently, I took a course on Winston Churchill in order to fill in massive gaps in my world history knowledge and found a whole sub collection of WC books for the downloading. often I hear a Diane rehm interview or reader review and have the book in seconds. while Overdrive and Audible formats are great occasionally, I’ll take DAISY books read by Paul or Kate from my pocket or pillow anytime.


So, 2009 was great for pleasures of audio reading for this print-disabled reader . And 2010 is enticing. so many books, such enthusiastic book clubs, it’s hard to believe my reading life could be so comfortable and keep me engaged and learning every day. thanks, Bookshare, especially.


However reading books is complemented by the “web magazines” of lengthy podcasts, with demos, dialogs, and product plugs. Most useful to me is AccessibleWorld.org, and its heroine founder Pat Price for mature discussions oriented to a wide Vision Loser audience.

The mixed breed Apple tree and iPod Touch


It’s too early to tell for me, but the iPod touch is, well, an eye-opener, or maybe, finger stimulator. The transfer of speech enabled interface from Mac Os to touch screen is rather elegant and yet perfectly conventional for someone used to things that talk. I’m still practicing my flicks, learning menus and screen layouts, and adjusting to voice and volume. My iPod Touch guide is a Blind Cool Tech podcast.

Frankly, I don’t know if I’ll really
use the device in my daily routine or pass it on to the grateful hands of my helper relative. For me, this is an experiment in keeping up in two ways (1) the interface and (2) the app market. Now I know better what people are raving about, at the very least. Unfortunately, I hate iTunes as a cluttered mess, reluctantly made partially accessible by apple, and not as good a podcatcher as the Levelstar icon RSs client. I despise being driven into stores, to get something in the midst of other stuff I do not want to think about, let alone buy. so, a reluctant shopper has yet to find the hook that will make me a senior “silver surfer” happy app user and podcast listener. stay tuned.


Maybe most important is that the Touch and iPhone commemorate a unification of assistive and mainstream markets. When my fingers get better enabled, I’ll be able to converse with sighted people about similarities and differences in using these mobile devices. Ha, I might even seduce a few into TTS appreciation, leading to my ideal world where everything talks fluently and informatively. I even appreciate how Talking ATM technology helps Vision Losers manage , a fascinating tale of advocacy that makes daily life more normal.

People Who keep me going


Making this short, since I do get emotional, I truly appreciate my family and friends putting up with my frustrations, crazy ideas, and needs for transportation and shopping. Daily life details with partial vision are so much harder than I could have imagined. where’s my Icon case? Oh, on the black table, not the white contrast pad. that phone number I forgot to record? any medicare notices in the mail? whisper then please forget my PIN on grocery checkout. Hold in memory 10 things to do, ask for help, then re-ask a forgetful student helper. Coordinating schedules for lifelong learning and traditional college classes… I would never make it through the day without the freedom of a brisk 2 mile cane-free walk late afternoons.


Ouch, there are meanies in this life. Great retirement areas are not truly great unless they trade off a bit of housing, view, and roadway for public transportation for economically, physically, or temporarily disadvantaged people. Nothing would be so beautiful as a bus or van coming along the connector street a block away from home, taking me the few miles to lifelong learning classes or downtown restaurants or nearby shopping. Yes, I can walk but, well, why die of a fear from a careless driver in a pedestrian-unfriendly town. now, there are volunteer services, but we are talking about civilized life here, requiring taxes and attention, too often withheld by meanies. The sweetest words are “need a ride?” but at just the right time, if only there were a $5 routine impersonal option, sigh.. However, <a href="https://asyourworldchanges.wordpress.com/2009/06/28/resilience-bouncing-back-from-vision-loss/&quot; Resilience as a quality of life for Vision Losers comes with the territory, and plenty of authors have advice and role models to reverse these thoughts about meanies.


I also appreciate the opportunities from OLLI lifelong learning at Yavapai college where I can take a variety of courses to fill in my lifelong knowledge gaps. Luckily I can also expose others to social media trends and techniques to older adults as well as my showing off neat reading gadgets and growing skills.


New retirees often go through a memoir-ish phase until realizing the hard work involved. For me, post-Sputnik educational opportunities hooked me on computing . I am fascinated by whether NOT being first helped the USA start activities that profoundly influenced our lives, like, oh, say, the Internet. Beep-beep-beep that’s the way it was.


As I gradually understand better the needs of Vision Losers, I appreciate the generational demands on caretakers, need support and training. More on this topic in 2010.

The “Meanies” who could do better

.

Accessible Computing Mockery (ACM) happily behind the times

Knowing better, I mistakenly rejoined a professional association,acm.org, to gain access to its digital library. I sought to complete my publication repository, back to 1970s, maybe update some loose threads in a retrospective, and learn what I could from scholarly research on accessibility, usability, and assistive technology. For $200, I found myself struggling very hard through myriad metadata details to find items and, horrors, PDFs. in a layout table of search results, with headings left to site navigation. Quickly realizing it wasn’t this hard on google or bookshare, I asked through feedback for accessibility assistance. No response, asked again, 4 times. Complaining through other professional channels, I finally got a”well, we’ll update our CMs, sometime”. Invited to consult my tax advisor about considering a lifetime ACM membership, ha, I asked for my money back, declaring NFW I’d renew. Now, that’s just plain bad service to a professional contributor asking for ADA assistance. Strictly speaking, the entire site is technically accessible but using deprecated conventions a decade old. “It’s the headings, STUPID!”, I wanted to shout but knew I’d waste words and energy.


Sadly, my later post on ‘grafting accessibility onto computer
science education’
showed a widespread ignorance of simple, effective web standards across university and computing association websites. ever wonder where so many software accessibility problems come from? As a Cs educator myself, I stand guilty excluding my last semester when I wised up , conquered denial and deception, and tried to learn to guide software engineering projects. Believe me, accessibility isn’t in the Cs curricula, textbooks, or radar screens of more than a few research groups. Moreover to read their publications, and there are many good ideas and experiments, you need to fork over $$ to ACM through personal or institutional membership. and fight that deprecated portal monument to inaccessibility. Beware, my activist archetype will guide me through another year of asking Computing educators and NSF program personnel about accessibility inclusion of distributed pedagogical tools. Professional organizations like ACM and CRA should truly lead, by example, and minimize harm by taking their noses out of the federal funding trough and looking at their own disability demographics and responsibility to the society that depends upon computing products. Please see my constructive analysis and comments in the
December 7 post honoring the (only 10 accessibility errors) National Cs ed week.

The wealthy who starve rehab and transit services


In august I ranted about health insurance denial for being a vision Loser . While my anti-protected-capitalism streak still labels these companies and their protectors as the greatest meanies I could imagine, I now have a few more thoughts. Traveling to Canada in the midst of tea bag town halls I realized the U.S.A. was losing ground with other countries in both spirit and material senses. Wrangling among political factions on enormously costly and complex systems like health care is a failing situation that allows others
who resolved these issues a half century ago to improve their worlds without our anxieties and get on with other challenges the U.S.A. cannot adequately work on. In other words, we’re unhealthy due to this wrangling in a possibly fatal or declining sense.


closer to the situation facing Vision Losers is our sparse rehab system. Marvelous treatments now allow macular degenerates to prolong their vision loss experience until we all may possibly have access to stem cell interventions and repair. But eye conditions like mine, myopic macular degeneration and glaucoma, are often just plain not reversible or controllable. vision loss, Like other sensory changes, is part of aging or injury or birth, and medicine isn’t the solution. rather, people with these conditions need rehab, training, and support more than medicine. If I hadn’t found a white cane and a little OMT (orientation and mobility training) I would likely be more damaged from falls or dispirited from being home-bound. the OMT cost, a few eye doctor visits and tests, made more difference to my life. Where does this rehab fit into the health care system? who pays? taxes? donations? volunteers? Really, we’re talking about a layer of our social services that must be maintained by taxes from all, believing that a proper role for any government is to diminish pain to unfortunate people and also enable them to reach their potential. Anybody who would deny OMT funded by a few dollars of taxes per citizen is a big, old, meanies in my very well informed opinion. come on, Americans, especially Arizonans, let’s give up a picture window in our dream homes, a trip to a Broadway play, or even a solar panel in order to support the education and salaries of the rehab layer of society. Your vision slips, you don’t want to move to a city with Lighthouse or SOAVI, where are you going to get needed training? again, this is just a matter of civilization, and a bit of wealth sharing.

Wishes for a better 2010

  1. An AccessibleX for every open service X. AccessibleTwitter shows how an web designer committed to accessibility can create a usable alternative interface to a service that chooses not to adopt standards or embrace its disabled users. So be it, big open X, but you’ll lose direct advertising revenue and loyalty, if that matters. Google WAVE is a great example.
  2. Really open book services. Google Book Search throws up unreadable page image that limits scholarly accomplishments of visually impaired people, like me. google should work a deal with Bookshare to send page text to qualified people as part of their settlement to exclusively manage intellectual property of millions of authors.
  3. A simple web-based RSS reader. RSS is the vein of gold in our web infrastructure that conducts blog posts and news updates to our attention with less web clutter and more convenience. My Levelstar Icon RSS client is perfectly simple, works for podcasts and text feeds, and collects 150 tributaries into one flow. But, Crossing the RSS divide for more web users is a challenge we need to address, including the .gov feeds.
  4. The end of stupid CAPTCHAs. These ugly buggers caught on as a symbol of human superiority to troublesome bots. “Prove you are human, decipher this image or sound track” if you also have acute enough vision or hearing. Sorry, AI lovers, but WordPress, for example, gets by with a good spam filter and email confirmations. OpenId requires one authenticated existence to prove humanity to other services. The blind communities have their own volunteer CAPTCVHA solvers, but why should a segment of society with 70% unemployment bear the costs of CAPTCHA entries to blogs and services? Think before using them, CAPTCHAs are not cool.
  5. More and better communication of academic computing professionals, especially educators, with web accessibility consultants and standards organizations. Indeed, there is a “science of accessibility” with framework of concepts, criteria (perceivable, operable, understandable, and robust), engineering principles (POSH=Plain Old Semantic HTML”), progressive enhancement design process, empirical studies, validation and design tools, all based in the current mantra of “computational thinking”. The ACM and IEEE should tear down their paywalls and expose their taxpayer-funded research results for everybody, rather than let ideas languish and researchers proceed in academic chambers. The current situation breeds out accessibility knowledge badly needed for future generations of mostly web and mobile usage.
  6. Engage designers and offer prizes for renovation of websites falling behind the times and below standards, as found in our recorded tour of stumbling around academic computing websites. True, the allure of good websites is a decade ago for many CS departments, often with control ceded to IT or New Media departments. In my experience, most students wanted to, but rarely had the chance to, participate in a design project aimed at utility, universality, and beauty. Website design is exactly that, with the added challenge of back end server and database architectures. Seriously, I ask, which is the best USA CS department website? Why? and how does it reflect its faculty, staff, and students?
  7. A pie chart manipulator to replace pictorial charts. With more and better data coming from the USG and computational engines like Wolfram Alpha, visually impaired people are stuck reading painfully through tables or using under-explained image texts. Tactile devices engage science and engineering students, but are there other options? Is there a widget that works the brain through fingers to explore and assimilate data just like looking at a pie chart? Our brains do amazingly well with TTS through ears rather than printed text through the eyes. Are we underutilizing our senses, individually and in combination?
  8. Continued progress and support for a modern technology USG, including conquering forms. We will all have improved services and information, provided gov websites apply accessibility principles and seek then use our feedback. What would really help is one good HTML form style that all websites could adapt and save citizens from stumbling around or abandoning our agency interactions.

  9. Every Vision Loser receives adequate orientation and mobility training, access to public transportation, support in daily living, and continuing opportunities in using software, networks, and web services. Not only students, job seekers, and veterans deserve services but also the aging who have so much to give back to society and so much to lose from isolation or falling behind.

Best wishes for a productive, stumble-free,, tweet-full, and fun 2010

Susan L. Gerhart, :Ph.D.

slger123 at gmail.com and on twitter

Grafting web accessibility onto computer science education

December 7, 2009

Note: this is a long post with webliography in the next article.
There is also a recorded tour of CS web sites as an MP3 download.

Understanding web accessibility through computational Thinking


This post is written for distribution during the first proclaimed National computer science education week, December 7, 2009. My goal is to stimulate awareness within the CSE community of the importance of web and software accessibility to society at large and to the proper development of associated skills within CS curricula. Taking this further, I offer a call to action to renovate our own websites for purposes of (1) improved service, (2) learning and practice, and (3) dissemination of lessons learned to other academic entities, including professional organizations.


recognizing that traditional, accredited CS curricula do not define a role for accessibility, I suggest actions that can be grafted into courses as exercises, readings, debates, and projects. To even more legitimize and improve uptake of accessibility, many of these problems can be cast as computational Thinking in the framework of drivers from society, technology, and science.

Definitions and Caveats

Caveat: I do not represent the blindness communities, standards groups, or any funding agency.
Also, I limit this accessibility context to the USA and visual impairment disability.

here is my personal definition framework:

  • Definition: disability = inability to independently perform daily living tasks due to physical or mental causes

    example: I cannot usually read print in books or news, nor text on a computer screen at size 14

    Example: I cannot usually follow a mouse cursor to a button or line of text to edit

  • Definition: Assistive Technology (AT) = hardware or software that overcomes some limits of a disability

    example: A screen magnifier can track a mouse cursor then smooth and enlarge text in the cursor region

    Example: A screen reader can announce screen events and read text using synthetic speech

  • Definition: Accessibility = Quality of hardware and software to (1) enable assistive technology and also (2) support the AT user to the full extent of their skills without unnecessary expenditure of personal energy

    example: A web page that enables focus through keyboard events enables a screen reader to assist a user to operate the page with ease, provided hands are working. Same is true for sighted users.

    Example A screen magnifier enables reading text and screen objects but at such a low rate that I cannot accomplish much usual work:

    Note: I am conflating accessibility with usability here, with usability usually referring beyond disabilities. Informally, to me, “accessibility” means my screen reader is fully operational, not in the way, and there are no reasons I cannot achieve the goal of page success as well as anybody.

  • Definition: Accommodation = explicit human decisions and actions to accomplish accessibility

    Example: Modifying a web page enhances comprehension for a screen reader user, see POSH computational thinking below

    Ecxample: Adapting security settings on a PC to permit a job applicant with a screen reader on a pen drive to read instructions and complete tests and forms

    Example: A curb cut in a sidewalk enables wheelchairs to moor easily cross streets. Also true for baby strollers, inattentive pedestrians, visually impaired, luggage carts, skateboards, etc.


I base my analysis and recommendations on several domains of knowledge:

  • Learning and acquisition of skills as a recent vision Loser, becoming “print disabled”, “legally blind”, now at an intermediate skill level

  • Computer scientist, active for decades in formal methods and testing, highly related to “computational thinking” with broader professional experience in design methods and technology transfer.

  • Intermittent computer science and software engineering educator at undergraduate and master’s level programs with experience and opinions on accreditation, course contents, student projects, and associated research

  • Accelerated self-study and survival training from the community of persons with disabilities, the industry and professions serving them, and the means for activism based in social media like twitter, blogs, and podcasts

  • Lingering awareness of my own failings before my vision loss, including software without accessibility hooks, web pages lacking structural/semantic markup, and , worst of all, omission of accessibility considerations from most courses and projects. My personal glass house lies in slivers around me as I shout “if only I knew then, when I was professionally active, what I know now, as a semi-retiree living with the consequences and continuing failures of my profession.

what is “computational thinking” and what does it have to do with accessibility?

This term was coined by dr. Jeannette wing in a 2006 article, and best expressed in her
Royal society presentation and podcast conversations. for our purposes, CT asks for more precise description of abstractions used in assistive technology, web design, and mainstream browsers, etc. The gold standard of web accessibility for my personal kind of disability, shared with millions of Americans, is the bottom line of reading and interacting with web sites as well as currently normally sighted persons. To an amazing degree, audio and hearing replaces pixels and seeing provided designs do support cooperation of assistive technology at both primitive levels and costs for effort expended. I’ll illustrate some fledgling computational thinking in a later section and by touring CS and other websites, but, sorry, this won’t be a very pleasant experience for either me the performer or listeners.


CSE can benefit from the more rigorous application of CT to meet its societal obligations while opening up new areas of research in science and technology leading to more universal designs for everybody. To emphasize, however, this is not a venture requiring more research before vast improvements can be achieved, but rather a challenge to educators to take ownership and produce more aware computing professionals. …

Driving forces of society, Technology, and science


Here’s a summary of trends and issues worthy of attention within CSE and suggested actions that might be grafted appropriately.

driving forces from society

computer science education has a knowledge gap regarding accessibility


As excellently argued in a course description “Accessibility First”, web design in general, accessibility, and assistive technology are at best service learning or research specialties falling under human computer interface or robotics. where do Cs students gain exposure to human differences, the ethics of producing and managing systems usable by everybody, and the challenges of exploring design spaces with universal intentions.


The extensive webliography below offers the best examples I could find, so please add others as comments. Note that I do not reference digital libraries because (1) the major ACM Portal is accessibility deficient itself and (2) I object to the practice of professional contributions being available only at a charge. The practice of professional society control over publications forces a gulf between academic researchers and a vibrant community of practitioners, including designers, tool builders, accessibility consultants and activists.


Action: Use the above definition framework to describe the characteristics of the following as ordinary or assistive: keyboards, tablets with stylus, onscreen keyboard, mouse, screens, fonts, gestures, etc. How do these interfaces serve (1) product developers and (2) product users? Where is the line between assistive and mainstream technology?


Action: see the proposed expansion of the National computer Science education proclamation in our conclusions. Debate the merits of both the whereas assumptions the therefore call to action. Are these already principles adopted and practiced within CSE?

Disability is so prevalent that accessibility is a uniform product requirement.

Being disabled is common, an estimated 15% of U.S.A. population with serious enough visual impairment to require adjustments from sites designed assuming full capabilities of acuity, contrast, and color. Eyesight changes are inevitable throughout life, even without underlying conditions such as macular degeneration or severe myopia. Visual abilities vary also with ambient conditions such as lighting, glare, and now size and brightness of small screens on mobile devices. considering other impairments, a broken arm, carpal tunnel injury, or muscle weakness give a different appreciation for interaction with a mouse, keyboard, or touch screen. As often said, we will all be disabled some way if we live long enough. Understanding of human differences is essential to production of good software, hardware, and documentation. Luckily, there are increasingly more specimens, like me, willing to expose and explain my differing abilities and a vast library of demonstrations recorded in podcasts and videos.


Action: view You tube videos such as the blind web designer using a screen reader explaining the importance of headings on web pages. Summarize the differences in how he operates from currently sighted web users. How expensive is the use of Headings? See more later in our discussion of CT for Headings.


Action: visit or invite the professionals from your organization’s Disability services, Learning center, or whatever it is called. These specialists can explain disabilities, assistive technology, educational adjustments, and legal requirements.


Action: Is accessibility for everybody, everywhere, all the time a reasonable requirement? What are the ethics and tradeoffs of a decision against accommodation? What are the responsibilities of those requiring accommodations?

The ‘curb cut’ principle suggests how accessibility is better for everyone


Curb cuts for wheelchairs also guide blind persons into street crossings and prevent accidents for baby strollers, bicyclists, skateboarders, and inattentive walkers. The “curb cuts” principle is that removing a barrier for persons with disabilities improves the situation for everybody. This hypothesis suggests erasing the line that labels some technologies as assistive and certain practices as accessibility to maximize the benefits for future users of all computer-enabled devices. This paradigm requires a new theory of design that recognizes accessibility flaws as unexplored areas of the design space, potential harbingers of complexity and quality loss, plus opportunities for innovation in architectures and interfaces. Additionally, web accessibility ennobles our profession and is just good for business.


Action: List physical barriers and adaptations in your vicinity, not only curb cuts, but signage, safety signals, and personal helpers. Identify how these accommodate people with canes, wheelchairs, service animals, etc. And also identify ways these are either helpful or hampering individuals without disabilities. Look at settings of computers and media used by instructors in classrooms. Maybe a scavenger hunt is a good way to collect empirical physical information and heighten awareness.


Action: Identify assistive technology and accessibility techniques that are also useful for reasons different from accessibility? e.g. A keyboard enabled web page or browser tabs support power users.

Persons with disabilities assert their civil rights to improve technology.


while most of us dislike lawsuits and lawyers, laws are continuously tested and updated to deal with conflicts, omissions, and harm. Often these are great educational opportunities on both the challenges of living with disabilities and the engineering modifications, sometimes minor, for accommodations. Commercial websites like amazon, iTunes, the Law School aptitude test, small business administration, and Target are forcefully reminded that customers are driven away by inaccessibility of graphics, menus, forms, and shopping carts. Conversely, recently, I had a quick and easy checkout from a Yahoo small business website, greatly raising my respect and future return likelihood whenever I see the product vendor and website provider.


Devices such as controllers on communication systems, the amazon Kindle, and new software like google WAVE and chrome browser often launch with only accessibility promises, excluding offensively and missing feedback opportunities from persons with disabilities. Over and over, it is shown that the proverbial software rule of increasing cost of fixing missing requirements late is exemplified by accessibility, whether legal or business motivated. While a lawsuit can amazingly accelerate accessibility, companies with vast resources like Microsoft, Oracle, blackboard, and google are now pitted in accessibility races with Yahoo, apple, and others. The bar is rapidly being raised by activism and innovation.


for many The social good of enabling equal access to computing is an attractor to a field renowned for nerds and greed. Social entrepreneurs offer an expansive sense of opening doors to not only education and entertainment but also employment, that now stands around 20% for disabled persons. Many innovative nonprofit organizations take  advantage of copyright exemptions building libraries and technology aids for alternatives to print and traditional reading.  


The computing curb cuts principle can motivate professionals, services, and end users to achieve the potential beauty and magic of computing in everyday life, globally, and for everybody who will eventually make the transition into some form of sensory, motor, or mental deficiency. But, first, mainstream computing must open its knowledge and career paths to encompass the visionaries and advances now segregated. All too often persons with disabilities are more advanced, diversified, and skill full in ways that could benefit not yet disabled people.


Action: The ubiquitous bank ATM offers a well documented ten year case study of how mediation led to a great improvement in independent living. for visually impaired people. Take those ear buds out of the MP3 player and try them on a local ATM, asking for service help if needed or ATM is not voice enabled. Using a voice enabled ATM also provides insight into the far more problematic area of electronic voting systems.


Action:
the amazon Kindle lawsuit by blind advocates against universities considering, or rejecting, the
device and its textbook market provides a good subject for debate.


Action: On the home front, pedagogical advances claimed for visual programming languages like Alice are not equally available to visually impaired students and teachers. first, is this a true assertion? How does this situation fit the definition of equal or equivalent access to educational opportunities? should the platform and implementation be redone for accessibility? Note: I’ve personally seen a student rapidly learn OO concepts and sat in on Cs1 courses with Alice, but I am totally helpless with only a bright, silent blob on the screen after download. Yes, I’ve spoken to SIGCSE and Alice personnel, suggested accessibility options, but never received a response on what happens to the blind student who signs up for an Alice-based CS course. Please comment if you have relevant experience with accommodations and Alice or other direct manipulation techniques.

The Web has evolved a strong set of standards and community of supporters.

W3c led efforts are now at 2.0 with an evolved suite of standards products, including documents, validator’s, and design tools. standards go a long way enabling accessibility by both their prescriptions and rationales, often drawing on scientific principles, such as color perception. but the essence of web standards is to define the contracts among browsers and related web technologies that enables designers to predict the appearance of and interaction with their designed sites and pages. The theme of WCAG 2.0 sums up as Perceivable, Operable, Understandable, and Robust. we all owe a debt to the Web standards Mafia for their technical contributions, forceful advocacy to vendors, and extensive continuing education.


Web standards are sufficiently mature, socially necessary, and business worthy that open, grassroots motivated curricula are being defined. CSE people who understand CT may well be able to contribute to this effort uniquely. In any case, questions about the relationship of tradition CS education and this independent curriculum movement must be addressed considering the large workforce of web designers, including accessibility specialists. Furthermore, web design inherently requires close designer and client communication, making it difficult to offshore into different culture settings.


Action: Use the #accessibility and #a11y hash tags on twitter to track the latest community discussions, mostly presented in blogs and podcasts. Pick a problem, like data tables, to learn the accessibility issues from these experts. find and create good and bad examples, but note you may need a screen reader software for this. can you characterize the alternatives and tradeoffs in CT terms?


Action: Create or try some web page features in several different browsers. Notice the differences in appearance and operation. Which sections of WCAG apply to noticeable differences or similarities?


Action: What is the career connection of computer science and web design? What are the demographics, salary, portability, and other qualities of web design versus traditional CS and SE jobs?

Transparency and dissemination of federal government data is drawing attention to accessibility

First, a remodeled whitehouse.gov drew accolades and criticisms. New websites like data.gov and recovery.gov appeared to reinforce the Obama administration promises. Disability.gov showed up on my radar screen through its Twitter flow. All these web sources, are now in my RSS feed reading regime. But the websites seem to be still behind on some aspects of accessibility, and under scrutiny by activists, including me. Personally, I’d be satisfied with a common form for requesting data and services, not the elements itself but well evolved interaction patterns through feedback and validation. More importantly, the data sets and analyses are challenging for visually impaired people, suggesting even new scientific research and novel technology to utilize alterative non-visual senses and brain power.


Additionally, innovation in assistive technology and accessibility is recognized at the National Center for Technology Innovation, with emphasis on portability and convergence with mainstream technology. Indeed, apparently, there are stimulus funds available in education and in communication systems.


Action: Visit the various USG cabinet department websites and then write down your main perception of their quality and ability to answer questions.


Action: Find examples of USG website forms users fill out for contacts, download of data sets, mailing lists, etc. How easy is filling out the forms> what mistakes do you make? How long does each take? Which forms are best and worst?

Action:
Check out on recovery.gov whether any stimulus funds are being spent on assistive technology. Or perhaps that information is on Deptart of Education sites as plans or solicitations.

Mainstream and assistive technologies are beginning to cross over.


BusinessWeek notes a number of examples:
Clearly mobile devices are driving this change. Embedding VoiceOver in Mac OS, transferred then to products like IPod Touch, has motivated a number of blind “screenless switchers”. Google calls its version on Android “eyes-free”. For those long stuck in the “blindness ghetto” of products costing $1000s with small company support and marketing chains through disability support service purveyors, this is a big deal. Conversely, although limited by terms of amendment under the Chafee agreement, members of Bookshare have enjoyed access to a rapidly growing library of texts, really XML documents, read in synthetic speech by now pocket size devices than cross Kindle and IPod capabilities. There’s never been a better time to lose some vision if one is a technology adopter willing to spend off retirement funds to remain active and well informed. The aging baby boomer generation that drives USA cost concerns will be a vast market in need of keeping up with the government flow of information, electronic documentation, not to mention younger generations.


But, while this Vision Loser is happy with the technology trend, to those disabled around the world working with older or non-existent computing environments this and free, open source trends make truly life changing differences.


Action: What are the job qualifications for working in the areas of assistive technology and accessibility? Is this business are growing, and in what regions of the USA or the world?

Technology drivers

social media opens the culture of disability and the assistive markets for all computing professionals to explore.


while the cultures of disability may operate separate systems of societies and websites, in the case of vision impairment, the resources are right there for everybody to learn from, primarily by demos disseminated as podcasts by blind cool Tech, accessible world, and vendors. several annual conferences feature free exhibit halls visited by disability professionals, independent disabled like me, and luminaries like stevie wonder. cSUN is the biggest and a good place to get vendor and product lists. Again, many products can be seen in local disability support services. Local computer societies and CS courses may find well equipped people who can present like my Using things that Talk. This is a vibrant world of marketing closely couple with users, highly professional demos, and innovative developers, often disabled themselves. I personally treasure shaking hands with and thanking the young blind guys behind my Levelstar Icon and NVDA screen readers. Also, mailing lists are to various degrees helpful to the newly disabled, and rarely particular about age and gender. it’s a great technology culture to be forced into.

Action: Whenever you’re in a large enough city, visit their local vision training centers. I think you’ll be welcome, and might leave as a volunteer.


Action: With well over a thousand podcasts, dozens of blogs, and a regular tweet stream, the entry points for learning are abundant. However, the terminology and styles of presenters and presentations vary widely. Consider an example, often used in computer science, like David Harel’s watch, the microwave oven, or elevator controller. How do the state diagrams manifest in speech interfaces? Can you reverse engineer device descriptions using computational thinking? How could this help disabled users or accessibility providers?

Text-to-speech (TTS) is a mature technology with commodity voices.


Screen reader users rely on software implemented speech engines which use data files of word-to-sound mappings, i.e. voices. built into Mac Os, and widely available in windows and Linux, this mature technology supports a marketplace of voices available in open source or purchased with varying degrees of licensing, at a cost of about $25. comparable engines and voices are the main output channel of mobile assistive devices, like now I type on the Levelstar Icon. web pages, books, dialogs, email, … reading is all in our mind through our ears, not our eyes. An amazing and not yet widely appreciated breakthrough of a lineage of speech pioneers dating back to 1939 through DecTalk ATT Natural voices and now interactions with voice

recognition.


Action: Wikipedia has a great chronology and description of synthetic speech. Track this with Moore’s law and the changes of technology over decades.


Action: Compare synthetic voices, e.g. using samples from vendor nextup.com or the ‘As Your World Changes’ blog samples.

Processor and storage enable more and more talking devices. why not everything?

Alarm clocks, microwave ovens, thermostats, and
many more everyday objects are speech enabled to some degree, see the demos on blind cool Tech and accessible world. I carry my library of 1000+ books everywhere in a candy bar sized screen-less device. but why stop until these devices are wirelessly connected with meaningful contextual networks. Thermostats could relay information about climate and weather trends, power company and power grid situations, and feedback on settings and recommended adjustments. Devices can carry their own manuals and training.


Action: Listen to podcasts on blind cool Tech and accessible world about talking devices and how they are in use by visually impaired people. Reverse engineer the devices into state machines, use cases, and write conversations between devices and users in “natural language”, assuming ease of speech output.


Action: Inventory some devices that might be redesigned for talking, even talkative. Electrical or chemical laboratory instruments, medical devices, home appliances, cars and other moving things, etc. But what would these devices speak? How do they avoid noise pollution? interference? annoyance?


Action: Computer science researchers are great at devising advanced solutions that provide service to relatively few disabled persons. For example, I have no use of GPS because if I’m somewhere I don’t know, I’m in bigger trouble than needing coordinates. This would b different in a city with public transportation, maybe. How do we evaluate technology solutions with the user, not the technology purveyor, as the main beneficiary?

Pivotal technology for visually impaired, the screen reader, is rapidly evolving through open source

A screen reader doesn’t really read pixels but rather the interfaces and objects in the browser and desktop. GUI objects expose their behaviors and properties for the screen reader to read and operate via TTS. Listen to the demos of Cs websites you may be familiar with. Unfortunately the marketplace for screen readers has been priced at over $1000 with steep SMA updates and limits in trials and distribution. Products largely sold to rehab and disability services passed on to users, with limited sales to individuals. This is a killer situation for older adults who find themselves needing assistance but without the social services available to veterans, students, and employee mandated. Worse, product patents are being employed by lawyers and company owners (some non USA) as competitive lawsuits.

however, the world has changed with the development over the past few years of NVDA, Non visual desktop access, originating in Australia with grants from Mozilla, then yahoo and Microsoft. A worldwide user community adapts NVDA for locale and Tts languages, with constant feedback to core developers. gradually, through both modern languages (Python) and browser developer collaborations, NVDA is challenging the market. You can’t beat free, portable, and easily installed if the product works well enough, as NVDA has for me since 2007. It’s fun to watch and support an agile upstart, as the industry is constantly changing with new web technologies like ARIA. The main problem with NVDA is robustness in the competing pools for memory resources and inevitable Windows restarts and unwanted updates.

Action: download and install NVDA. Listen to demos to learn its use. You will probably need to upgrade TTS voices from its distributed, also open, Espeak.

Action: learn how to test web pages with NVDA, with tutorials available from Webaim and Firefox. Define testing criteria (see standards) and processes. Note: good area here for new educational material, building on CS and SE testing theories and practices.


Action: develop testing practices, tools, and theories for NVDA itself. since screen readers are abstraction oriented, CT rigor could help.


Action: Modify NVDA to provide complexity and cost information. Is there a Magic Metric that NVDA could apply to determine with, say 80% agreement with visually impaired users, that a page was OK, DoOver, or of questionable quality in some respect?

structured text enables book and news reading in a variety of devices..


DAISY is a specification widely implemented to represent books, newspapers, magazines, manuals, etc. Although few documents fully exploit its structuring capabilities, in principle, a hierarchy of levels with headings allows rapid navigation of large textual objects. for example, the Sunday NY Times, has 20 sections, editorials, automobiles, obituaries, etc. separated into articles. Reading involves arrowing to interesting sections, selecting articles, listening in TTS until end of article or nauseous click to next article. books arrive as folders of size usually less than 1 MB. reader devices and software manage bookmarks, possibly in recorded voice, and last stopping point, causes by user action or sleep timer. In addition to audible and National narrated reading services with DRM, The TTS reading regime offers a rich world from 60,000+ books contributed by volunteers and publishers to bookshare and soon over 1M DAISY formatted public books through bookserver.org.
These are not directly web accessibility capabilities as in browsers but rather do read HTML as text, support RS’s reading of articles on blogs, and include browsers with certain limits, as in no Flash.
Over time, these devices contribute to improved speech synthesis for use everywhere, including replacement of human voice organs. Steven Hawking, blogger heroine ‘left thumbed blogger’ Glenda with cerebral palsy, and others use computer and mobile devices to simply communicate speech.


Action: Listen to podcasts demos of devices like Icon, booksense, Plextalk, Victor stream. What capabilities make reading possible, tolerable, or pleasant? Voice, speed, flexibility, cost, access, …?

Accessibility tools are available, corresponding to static analyzers and style checkers for code.

While not uniformly agreeing, accurate, or helpful, standards groups provide online validator’s to “test” accessibility. For example, WAVE from webaim.org, marks up a page with comments derived from web standards guidelines, like “problematic link”, “unmatched brackets”, java script interactions (if java script disabled), header outline anomalies, missing graphic explanations, small or invisible text. It’s easy to use this checker, just fill in the URL. However, interpreting results takes some skill and knowledge. Just as with a static analyzer, there are false hits, warnings where the real problem is elsewhere, and a tendency to drive developers into details that miss the main flaws. Passing with clean marks is also not sufficient as a page may still be overly complex or incomprehensible.


Action: Below is a list of websites from my recorded tour. Copy the link into WebAim.org WAVE (not the Google one) and track the markup and messages to my complaints or other problems. show how you would redesign the page, if necessary, using this feedback.


Action: redesign the ACM digital library and portal in a shadow website to show how a modern use of structured HTML would help.


Action: consider alternatives to PDF delivery formats. Would articles be more or less usable in DAISY?


Action: design suites of use cases for alternative digital libraries of computer science content. which library or search engine is most cost effective for maintenance and users?

science drivers

Understanding of brain plasticity suggests new ways of managing disabilities

Brain science should explain the unexpected effectiveness and pleasure of reading without vision.


My personal story. Although I was experimenting with TTS reading of web pages, I had little appreciation, probably induced by denial, of how I could ever read books or long articles in their entirety. since it was
only a few weeks after I gave up on my Newsweek and reading on archetypes until my retina specialist pronounced me beyond the acuity level of legal blindness, I only briefly flirted with magnifiers, the trade of low vision specialists. rather, upon advice of another legally blind professional I met through her book and podcasts interviews, I immediately joined the wonderful nonprofit bookshare.org. A few trials with some very good synthetic voices and clunky PC-based software book readers lead me to the best at that time handheld device, the Bookport from APH, American Printing House for the blind. within weeks, I was scouring bookshare, then around 20,000 volumes, for my favorite authors and, wonders be, best sellers to download to my bookport. At first, I abhorred the synthetic voice, but if that was all that stood between me and regular reading, I could grow to love old precious Paul. going on 4 years, 2 GB of books, and a spare of the discontinued bookport, I still risk strangulation from ear buds at night with bookport beside me. Two book clubs broadened my reading into deeper unfamiliar nonfiction terrain and the Levelstar Icon became my main retriever from bookshare, now up to 60,000 volumes with many teenage series and nationally available school textbooks. I tell this story not only to encourage others losing vision, but also as a testimonial to the fact that I I am totally and continually amazed and appreciative that my brain morphed so easily from visual reading of printed books to TTS renditions in older robotic style voices. I really don’t believe my brain knows the difference about plot, characters, and details with the exception of difficult proper names and tables of data (more later). Neuroscientists and educators write books about the evolution of print but rarely delve into these questions of effectiveness and pleasure of pure reading by TTS. The best exceptional research is Clifford Nass A ‘wire for speech’ on how our brains react to gender, ethnicity, age, emotion, and other factors of synthetic speech. such a fascinating topic!

Action: Listen to some of the samples of synthetic speech on my website, e.g. the blockbuster ‘Lost symbol’ sample. Which voices affect your understanding of the content? How much do you absorb compared with reading the text sample? Extrapolate into reading the whole book using the voices you prefer, or can tolerate, and consider how you might appreciate the book plot, characters, and scenery Do you prefer male or female voices? Why?.

Numerical literacy is an open challenge for visual disability.

I personally encountered this problem trying to discuss a retirement report based around asset allocations expressed in pie charts. Now, I understand charts well, even programmed a chart tool. But I could find no way to replace the fluency of seeing a pie chart by reading the equivalent data in a table. This form of literacy, a form of numeracy, needs more work in the area of Trans-literacy, using multiple forms of perception and mental reasoning. Yes, a pie chart can be rendered in tactile form, like Braille pin devices, but these are still expensive. Sound can convey some properties, but these depend on good hearing and a different part of the brain. Personally, I’d like to experiment with a widget operated by keyboard, primarily arrow keys, that also read numbers with different pitches, voices, volume, or other parameters. The escalating sound of a progress bar is available in my screen reader, for example. Is there a composite survey somewhere of alternative senses and brain training to replace reading charts? Could this be available in the mainstream technology market? How many disabilities or educational deficiencies of education and training might also be addressed in otherwise not disabled people?
Is there an app for that?


Action: Inventory graphical examples where data tables or other structures provide sufficient alternatives to charts? Prototype a keyboard-driven, speech-enabled widget for interaction with chart like representations of data. Thank you for using me as a test subject.


Action: Moving from charts to general diagrams, how can blind students learn equivalent data structures like lists, graphs, state machines, etc.?

Web science needs accessibility criteria and vice versa.


The web is a vast system of artifacts, of varying ages,
HTML generations, human and software generated, important, etc. could current site and page accessibility evaluation scale to billions of pages in a sweep of accessibility improvement?
Surveys currently profile how screen readers are used and the distribution of HTML element usage.


Do a web search, in bing, Yahoo, google, or dogpile, whatever, and you’ll probably find a satisficing page , and a lot you wish not to visit or never visit again. Multiply that effort by , say 10, for every page that’s poorly designed or inaccessible to consider the search experience of the visually impaired. Suppose also that the design flaws that count as accessibility failures also manifest as stumbles or confusion for newer or less experience searchers. Now consider the failure rate of serious flaws of, , say, 90% of all pages. Whew, there’s a lot of barriers and waste in them there web sites.


experienced accessibility analysts , like found on webAxe podcasts and blog, can sort out good, bad, and just problematic features. Automated validation tools can point out many outright problems and hint at deeper design troubles.


Let’s up the level and assume we could triage the whole web, yep, all billions of pages as matched with experimental results of real evaluators, say visually impaired web heads like me and those accessibility experts. This magic metric, MM, has three levels: OK, no show stoppers by human evaluators; at 80% agreement; DO OVER, again with human evaluators 80% agreement of awfulness; and remaining requiring reconciliation of human and metric. Suppose an independent crawler or search engine robot used this MM to tag sites and pages. probably nothing would happen. but if…

Action: declare a week of clean Up the web, where the MM invokes real Acton to perform “do over” or “reconcile”. Now, we’re paying attention to design factors that really matter and instigating serious design thought. All good, all we need is that MM.

Action: which profession produces the most accessible pages, services, and sites? computer scientists seem to be consistently remiss on headings, but are chemists or literary analysts any better? If acm.org is as bad as I claim, are other professional societies more concerned about quality of service to their members? what are they doing the same or differently?
How does the quality of accessibility affect the science of design as applied to web pages, sites, and applications?

Accessibility needs a Science of Design and Vice Versa


Accessibility concerns often lead into productive unexplored design regions.
Accessibility and usability are well defined if underused principles of product quality.  The ‘curb cuts’ principle suggests that a defect with respect to these qualities is in a poorly understood or unexplored area of a design. Often  a problem that presents only a little trouble for the expected “normal” user is a major hassle or show stopper for those with certain physical or cognitive deficiencies. However, those flaws compound and often invisibly reduce productivity for all users. Increasingly, these deficiencies arise from ambient environmental conditions such as glare, noise, and potential damage to users or devices.


Moreover, these problems may also indicate major flaws related to the integrity of a design and long term maintainability of the product. An example is the omission of Headings on an HTML page that makes it difficult to find content and navigation divisions with a screen reader. This flaw usually reveals an underlying lack of clarity about the purpose and structure of the website and page. Complexity and difficult usability often arise from missing and muddled use cases. Attitudes opposing checklist standards often lead to perpetuating poor practices such as the silly link label “click here”.


The ‘curb cuts’ principle leads toward a theory of design that  requires remedy of accessibility problems not as a kindness to users nor to meet a governmental regulation but rather to force exploration through difficult or novel parts of the design terrain. The paradigm of “universal design” demands attention to principles that should influence requirements, choice of technical frameworks, and attention to different aesthetics and other qualities.   For example, design principles may address  where responsibilities lie for speech information to a user, thus questioning whether alternative architectures should be considered. Applying this principle early and thoroughly potentially removes many warts of the product that now require clumsy and expensive accessibility grafts or do-overs.


Just as the design patterns movement grew from the architectural interests of Christopher Alexander, attention to universal design should help mature the fields for software and hardware. The “curb cuts” principle motivates designers to think beyond the trim looking curb to consider the functionality to really serve and attract ever more populations of end users.


The accessibility call for action, accommodation, translates into a different search space and broader criteria plus a more ethically or economically focused trade-off analysis. now, design is rarely explicitly exploration, criterion’s, or tradeoff-focused. but the qualitative questions of inclusive design often jolt designers into broader consider of design alternatives. web standards such as WCAG 2.0 provide ways to prune alternatives as well as generate generally accepted good alternatives. It’s that simple: stay within the rules, stray only if you understand the rationales for these rules, and temper trade-off analysis with empathy toward excluded users or hard cool acceptance of lost buyer or admirers. well, that’s not really so simple, but expresses why web standards groups are so important and helpful — pruning, generating, and rationalizing is their contribution to web designers professional effectiveness and peace of mind.


Action: Reconstruct a textbook design to identify assumptions about similarities and differences of users. Force the design to explore extremes such as missing or defective mouse and evaluate the robustness of the design.


Action: Find an example of a product that illustrates universal design. How were its design alternatives derived and evaluated?

revving Up our computational Thinking on accessibility

POSH (Plain Old semantic HTML) and headings

POSH focuses our attention on common structural elements of HTML that add
meaning to our content with Headings and Lists as regular features. An enormous
number of web pages are free of headings or careless about their use. The
general rule is to outline the page in a logical manner: h1, H2, h3,…,H6, in
hierarchical ordering.
why is this so important for accessibility?

  1. headings. support page abstraction. reaching a page, whether first or return
    visit, I, and many other screen reader users, take a ‘heading tour’. Using our ‘h’ key repeatedly to visit headings, gives a rapid-fire reading of the parts of the page and an
    introduction to the terminology of the web site and page content. bingo! a good
    heading tour and my brain has a mental map and a quick plan for achieving my
    purpose for being there. No headings and, argh, I have to learn the same thing
    through links and weaker structures like lists. At worst I need to tab along
    the focus trail of HTML elements, usually a top-bottom, left-right ordering.

  2. Page abstraction enables better than linear search if I know roughly what I
    want. for example, looking for colloquium talks on a Cs website is likely to
    succeed by heading toward News and Events, whatever. with likely a few dozen
    page parts, linear search is time and energy consuming, although often leading
    to interesting distractions.

  3. Page abstraction encourages thinking about cohesion of parts, where to
    modularize, how to describe parts, and consistent naming. This becomes
    especially important for page maintainers, and eventually page readers, when
    new links are added. Just like software design, cohesion and coupling plus
    naming help control maintenance. An example of where this goes wrong is the
    “bureaucratic guano” on many government web pages, where every administrator
    and program manager needs to leave their own links but nobody has the page
    structure as their main goal.

  4. while it’s not easy to prove, but plausible, SEO (search engine optimizers)
    claim headings play a role in page rankings. This appeals to good sense that
    words used in headings are more important so worth higher weights for search
    accuracy. It might also mean pages are better designed, but this is just
    conventional wisdom of users with accessibility needs.

so, we have abstraction, search, design quality, and metrics applied to the
simple old semantic HTML Heading construct.


Now, this rudimentary semantic use of Headings is the current best practice, supplementing the deprecated Accs Tags that all keyboard users can exploit to reach standard page locations, like search box and navigation. Rather, headings refine and define better supplements for access tags. Going further, the ARIA brand of HTML encourages so-called ‘landmarks’ which can also be toured and help structure complex page patterns such as search results. The NVDA screen reader reports landmarks as illustrated on AccessibleTwitter and Bookshare. Sites without even Headings appear quaint and deliberately unhelpful.

The Readable conference program Problem

I recently attended a conference of 3.5 days with about 7 tracks per session.
The document came as a PDF without markup, apparently derived from a WORD
document with intended use in printed form. Oh, yeah, it was 10MB download with
decorations and all conference info.


I was helpless to read this myself. yes, I could use the screen reader but
could not mentally keep in mind all the times and tracks and speakers and
topics. I couldn’t read like down Tracks or across sessions nor mark talks to
attend. Bummer, I needed a sighted reader and then still had to keep the
program in mind while attending.


A HTML version of the preliminary program was decidedly more usable. Hey, this is what hypertext is all about! Links from talks to tracks and sessions and vice versa, programs by days or half-days subdivided on pages, real HTML data tables with headers that can be interpreted by screen reader, albeit still slowly and painfully.
that’s better, but would be unpopular with sighted people who
wanted a stapled or folded printout.


OK, we know this is highly structured data so how about a database? This would
permit, with some SQL and HTML, wrapping, generation of multiple formats, e.g.
emphasizing tracks or sessions or topics,… But this wouldn’t likely distill
into a suitable printable document. Actually, MS WORD is programmable, so the
original route is still possible but not often considered. Of course, it’s often more difficult to enter data into forms for a database, but isn’t that what student helpers are for? Ditto the HTML generation from the database.


The best compromise might be using appropriate Header styles in WORD and
use an available DAISY export so the program in XML could be navigated in our
book readers.


This example points the persistent problem that PDF, which prints well and
downloads intact, is a bugger when it loses its logical structure. Sighted
readers see that structure, print disable people get just loads of text. This
is especially ironic when the parts originally had semantic markup lost in
translation to PDF, as occurs with NSF proposals.


so, here I’m trying to point out a number of abstraction problems, very
mundane, but amenable to an accommodation by abstracting to a database type of
model or fully exploiting markup and accessible format in WORD. Are there other
approaches? Does characterizing this problem in terms of trade-offs among abstractions and loss of structural information motivate computer scientists to approach their conference responsibilities different?


More generally, accessibility strongly suggests that HTML be the dominant document type on the web, with PDF, TXT, WORD, etc. As supplementary. Adobe and free lance consultants work very hard to explain how PDF may be made accessible, but that’s just not happening, nor will this replace probably millions of moldering PDFs. Besides negligent accessibility, forcing a user out of a browser into a separate application causes resources allocated and inevitable security updates.

Design by Progressive Enhancement&lt


‘Graceful degradation’ didn’t work for web design, e.g. when a browser has javascript turned off, or an older browser is used, or a browser uses a small screen. Web designers recast their process to focus on content first, then styles, and finally interactive scripting. There’s a lot more in the practitioner literature that might well be amenable to computational thinking, e.g. tools that support and ease the enhancement process as well as the reverse accommodation of browser limitations. Perhaps tests could be generated to work in conjunction with the free screen reader, to encourage web developers to place themselves in the user context, especially requiring accessibility.


So, here’s a challenge for those interested in Science of Design, design patterns, and test methods with many case studies on the web, discussed in blogs and podcasts.

Touring CS websites by screen reader
— download MP3


Are you up for something different? Download

MP3 illustration of POSH Computer Science websites 45 minutes, 20 MB
. This is me talking abot what I find at the following locations, pointing out good and bad accessibility features. You should get a feeling of life using a screen reader and how I stumble around websites. And, please, let me interject that we’re all learning to make websites better, including my own past and present.

Note: I meant POSH=”Plain old semantic HTML” but sometimes said “Plain old simple HTML”. Sorry about the ringing alarm. Experimental metadata: Windows XP, Firefox, NVDA RC 2009, ATT Mike and Neo speech Kate, PlexTalk Pocket recorder.

Web Sites Visited on CSE screen reader tour


  1. U. Texas Austin


    Comments:
    Firm accessibility statement;
    graphic description?;
    headings cover all links?;
    good to have RSS;
    pretty POSH


  2. U. Washington


    Comments:
    No headings, uses layout tables (deprecated);
    good use of ALT describing graphics;
    not POSH


  3. U. Arizona


    Comments:
    all headings at H1, huh?;
    non informative links ‘learn more’;
    not POSH


  4. CS at cmu.edu


    Comments:
    no headings;
    non informative graphics and links;
    unidentified calendar trap;
    definitely not POSH


  5. Computational Thinking Center at CMU


    Comments:
    no headings;
    strange term probes:;
    non informative links PPT, PDF;
    poor POSH


  6. CRA Computing Research Association


    Comments:

    no headings;
    interminable links unstructured list;
    not so POSH


  7. ACM.org and DL portal


    Comments:
    irregular headings on main page;
    no headings on DL portal;
    noninformative links to volumes;
    hard to find category section;
    poo POSH


  8. Computer Educators Oral History Project CHEOP


    Comments:
    straightforward headings;
    don’t need “looks good” if standard;
    good links;
    POSH enough


  9. NCWIT National Center Women Information Technology


    Comments:
    doesn’t conform to accessibility statement;
    graphics ALT are not informative;
    link ‘more’ lacks context;
    headings irregular;
    do over for POSH

So, what to do with these POSH reports?


Clearly, some sites could use some more work to become world class role models for accessibility. At first glance, my reports and those that would be compiled from validator’s like WebAim WAVE indicate that some HTML tweaking would yield improvements. Maybe, but most websites are under the control of IT or new media or other departments, or maybe outsourced to vendors. Changes would then require negotiation. Another complication is that once a renovation starts, it is all too easy to use the change for a much more extensive overhaul. Sometimes, fixes might not be so easy, as often is indicated by the processes of progressive enhancement. This is classical maintenance process management, as in software engineering.


However, hey, why not use this as a design contest? Which student group can produce a mockup shadow website that is attractive and also meets the WCAG, validator, and even the SLGer tests?


Just saying, here’s a great challenge for CSE to (1) learn more about accessibility and web standards, (2) make websites role models for other institutions, and (3) improve service for prospective students, parents, and benefactors.

conclusion: A Call To Action

To the proclamation, let us informally add

  • whereas society, including the Cs field itself, requires that all information, computer-based technology be available to all persons with disabilities,

  • whereas computer science is the closest academic field to the needs and opportunities for universal accessibility,


  • Disabled individuals are particularly under-represented in computing fields, in disparate proportion to the importance of disability in the economic and social well-being of the nation

  • therefore
  • computer science educators will adapt their curricula to produce students with professional awareness of the range of human abilities, the resources for responding to needs of persons with disabilities

  • computer science education will be open and welcoming to all persons with disabilities both helping the person to reach their own employment potential and opportunity to contribute to society and (2) inform educators and other students about their abilities, needs, domain knowledge,

See next post for Webliography

Comments, Corrections, Complaint?

Please add your comments below and I’ll moderate asap.
Yes, I know there are lots of typos but I’m tired of listening to myself, will proof-listen again later.
Longer comments to slger123@gamail.com. Join in the Twitter discussion of #accessibility by following me as slger123.


Thanks for listening.

Webliography for ‘Grafting Accessibility onto Computer Science Education’

December 7, 2009

References for ‘Grafting Accessibility Onto Computer Science’ Education

This webliography accompanies an article on <‘As Your World Changes; post on ‘Grafting Accessibility onto Computer Science Education’ Dec 7 2009 That article analyzes trends in Society, technology, and Science and suggests actions for exercises, projects, and debates suitable for traditional computer science courses. See also a recording of how CS web sites appear to a visually impaired person using a screen reader.
The article’s theme is the application of computational thinking to accessibility problems and techniques.

Computational Thinking


  1. Computational Thinking and Thinking About Computing, Jeannette wing, Royal Society


  2. Jon Udell Podcast Interview with Dr. Jeannette Wing on Computational Thinking


  3. Jon Udell Interview Podcast with Joan Peckham on NSF Computational Thinking activities


  4. Center for Computational Thinking Carnegie Mellon University

Accessibility Resources


  1. IEEE ‘Accessing the Future’ 09 Conference

    Recommendation 1: # In standards and universal design it is imperative that accessibility and the needs of people with disabilities are incorporated into the education of those who will generate future ICT.

  2. Assistive Tech and organization conferences and exhibits, e.g. CSUN Cal State North ridge accessibility conference(San Diego)

  3. User Centered Design Blog post on future of accessibility


  4. Project Possibility Open Source for Accessibility


  5. Knowbility Consulting, John Slatan Access U


  6. Business Week series on assistive technology


  7. Understanding Progressive Enhancement


  8. National Center on Technology Innovation brief on Assistive Technology

    Portability, customization, etc.


  9. Five Key Trends in Assistive Technology, NCIT summarized


  10. Webaim.org with guidelines, validator, NVDA testing, screen reader survey


  11. Opera’s MOMA Discovers What’s Under the Web Hood


  12. Hakob Nielsen AlertBox and Beyond ALT Report


  13. Podcast series on practical accessibility, see #74 ‘Back to Basics’


  14. Video on importance of HTML headings


  15. gov 2.0: Transparency without Accessibility? (FCW)


  16. Clifford Nass ‘Wire for speech’ book and experiments

Web Standards and Accessibility References


  1. STC Society of Technical Communicators Accessibility SIG


  2. WAI Web Accessibility Initiative of W3c


  3. WCAG 2.0 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines


  4. #Accessibility or #a11y tracks tweets using AccessibleTwitter


  5. The Web standards Mafia honored Nov. 30 Web standards day

    <


  6. Interact open web standards curriculum project


  7. Opera’s Web standards Curriculum


  8. Online book on Integrating Accessibility in design ‘Just Ask’


  9. How People with Disabilities use the Web

Computer Science Week and Policy Organization References

    <


  1. Computer Science Education Week


  2. Accessibility official statements of SIGCSE


  3. US ACM Policy on Web Accessibility

    with many useful links


  4. Dept. of Justice Office of Civil Rights on Web Accessibility in Higher Education


  5. Computing Research News on Accessibility Research (Ladner)


  6. ACM Special Interest group on Computing accessibility

Computer Science Education and Accessibility References

  1. ‘Accessibility First Approach to Teaching Web Design Hamilton College


  2. Web Design with Universal Usability (Schneiderman)


  3. Academia.edu people with speciality accessibility


  4. Web Education Survey


  5. Diversity Through Accessibility blog


  6. Improving Web Accessibility through Service Learning Partnerships


  7. Integrating usability and Accessibility in Information Systems Assurance


  8. Equal Access, Universal Design of Computing Departments


  9. AccessMonkey project at U. Washington


  10. An Accessibility Report Card for World Known Universities


  11. Introducing Accessibility in Internet Computing


  12. WebAnywhere reader from U. Washington


  13. Broadening Participation NSF


  14. Visually Impaired Students get a boose in Computing (RIT)


  15. Imagine IT Project at Rochester Institute of Technology
Service Organizations within Academia
References

  1. WebAIM on University Accessibility Policies


  2. Web Accessibility Center at The Ohio State University


  3. Designing More Accessible Websites — TRACE Center U. Wisconsin


  4. Best HTML Practices from ICTA Illinois Center for Web Accessibility


  5. Cultivating and Maintaining Accessibility Expertise in Higher Education


  6. Access IT National Center at U. Washington


  7. A Checklist for Making Computing Departments Inclusive, DOIT at U. Washington


  8. Distance Learning Accessibility Evaluation


  9. U. Texas Accessibility Center (RIP)


  10. Disability 411 Podcast for Disability Professionals

Services and Products for Visually Impaired


  1. Bookshare.org

    60,000+ digital talking books scanned by volunteers or contributed by publishers, available to all USA Special Ed students


  2. TextAloud reader and mp3 converter

    also source for commercial synthetic voices and a good newsletter on text to speech

    <li
    <
    Free, open source, international screen reader NVDA (non-visual desktop access)


  3. audio-driven PDA, RSS, newspaper and book reader
    from Levelstar.com

    >

  4. Disability.gov
  5. American Federation for Blind, Access World newsletter and product reviews

  6. American Council for Blind

  7. National Federation for Blind
  8. Access World Product reviews


    DAISY internationalism consortium on digital talking books standard

>

Podcasts on Assistive Tech and Persons with Disabilities


  1. Blind Cool Tech amateur product reviews

  2. Accessible World Tech Training

  3. ACB Radio news, demo, interviews


  4. WebAxe Podcast on Practical Accessibility

Notes and References on the ‘Curb Cuts’ principle

  1. ‘Universal Design’ paradigm (from Wikipedia) integrates concepts from physical, architectural, and information design.

  2. Detailed principles (from NCSU design center) include equitable use, flexibility, simplicity, intuitiveness, tolerance for error, low physical effort,…

  3. A chronology of inventions for electronic curb cuts illustrates how hearing, seeing, and learning disabilities have influenced the modern communications world.

  4. The ‘curb cut’ symbolism is widely used in the accessibility world, e.g. ‘curbcuts.net’, an accessibility consultancy

    . The site kindly provides a guide to concrete curb cuts


  5. Background on accessibility in the context of “curb cuts”
    covers the essential role of considering the full range of human abilities in design.

  6. Analysis of the “curb cut” metaphor in computing suggests many problems in its usage.

Relevant ‘As Your World Changes’ Posts


  1. AYWC ‘Using Things That Talk’ demonstration presentation


  2. AYWC Literacy Lost and Found (charts, reading)

  3. AYWC Amazon Kindle and accessibility: what a mess!


  4. AYWC stumbling around .gov websites: the good, bad, and goofy


  5. AYWC Are missing, muddled use cases the cause of inaccessibility?


  6. AYWC Images and their surrogates — the ALT tag


  7. AYWC Let’s all use our headings

Comments, Corrections, Complaint?

Please add your comments below and I’ll moderate asap.
Yes, I know there are lots of typos but I’m tired of listening to myself, will proof-listen again later.
Longer comments to slger123@gamail.com. Join in the Twitter discussion of #accessibility by following me as slger123.


Thanks for listening.